Celestial Seasonings – January 2022

By Muriel Bristol | December 30, 2022

Happy New Year one and all! I hope you had a wonderful holiday season in 2021. This month brings a super meteor shower as well as a super moon. Our Sun will be as close to the Earth as it ever gets.

Providing you have the proper equipment, check out the recommended YouTube videos for more in-depth events.


January 3. The Quadrantid meteor shower from Bootes, the Constellation will be present in this evening’s sky. This is the major shower of this month and there will be a black moon and the showers will be prolific rendering this the finest time of this month for sky watching.

January 4. Our planet makes a complete orbit in one year. The orbit is not purely circular but slightly ovular. Once in every orbit the Earth makes its closest approach to the Sun. This year, that close approach will occur today and the Sun may look bigger than usual.

January 5. The Moon and Jupiter will ascend to the right as well as rise together in this evening’s sky.

January 7. Mercury will be as far away from the Sun, but might not be visible with the naked eye.

January 9. Mercury will be half visible, but again, hard to see without an amplification tool. The Moon will be at first quarter today.

January 10. Mercury will be at its highest point in tonight’s sky.

January 17. The full Wolf super moon will display tonight. It was named the Wolf moon because wolves were thought to cry more in January than at any other point in time.

January 19. The y-Ursae Minorid meteor shower from the Constellation Ursa Minor will put on a show this evening.

January 25. This will show the final quarter of the full Wolf super moon.

January 29. The Moon and Mars will travel with one another as well as ascend to the right.

References:

Ford, D.F. (n.d.). 2021. Retrieved from in-the-sky.org

Now Next. (2021, December 17). January 2022 Astronomical Events. Retrieved from youtu.be/U2XoY6bLwgU

Secrets of Space. (2021, December 28). Top Astronomy Events in January 2022. Retrieved from youtu.be/0Cs8Neu5sy8

Wikipedia. (2021, December 21). Quadrantids. Retrieved from en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quadrantids

Celestial Seasonings – December 2021

By Heather Durham | November 30, 2021

Happy holidays folks and welcome to our final edition of Celestial Seasonings for the year 2021! 

This month brings us 7 meteor showers visible without a telescope, as well as an opportunity to view 3 planets between the 8th and 9th if you have a telescope. There is a link below about this event below from inverse.com along with several videos that will give you a deeper and wider explanation of the night skies and astronomical events this month. The first day of winter begins on the solstice.

Let our journey begin…..


December 4. There will be a new Moon today will be on the same side of the Sun.  This means that this will be a perfect day for viewing the night sky.

December 6. Today, the  December Cassiopeid Meteor Shower will put on an evening light show which may be easily visible due to the new Moon. This shower occurs in the Constellation Andromeda. As well, the Moon and Venus will make a close approach to each other and rise towards the right.

December 7. Venus will be at its brightness this evening. The Moon and Saturn will closely approach each other as they rise towards the right.

December 8-9. The Moon along with Jupiter and Saturn and Venus will be visible.

December 9. The Monocerotid meteor shower will produce this evening. It will begin around 6:30 pm and conclude near dawn the following morning. It originates from the Constellation Monocerotid.

December 10. There will be the first quarter of the moon today.

December 12. The Hydrid meteor shower from the Constellation Hydra will be active today. It will reach peak production at 10:00 pm during which time you may see 2 meteors per hour.

December 14. Tonight we have the Geminid meteor shower from the Constellation Gemini which could locally produce an average of 118 meteors at peak times. The Geminid shower has become brighter these past few years and it’s sometimes referred to as the meteor shower king! Additionally, the meteors cascade in a variety of colors.

December 16. We will have another meteor shower tonight, Comae Berenicid from the Constellation Leo. This may produce some long-lived meteors that may travel widely across the evening sky.

December 18. This evening, the Moon will be full.  This is referred to as the Cold Moon or Long Night Moon.

December 19. Tonight should bring another fine meteor shower for we will have the December Leonis Minorid shower from the Constellation Leo Minor. Expect to see its peak at 7:00 pm.

December 21. Winter Solstice Day, also referred to as the shortest day of the year in the Northern Hemisphere and the first day of winter.

December 22. Tonight we’ll have another light show brought to us by the Constellation Ursa named Ursid. Peak can be expected around 11:00 pm.  As well, there will be additional displays may be seen just before dawn and after dusk today.

December 26.  Today brings us the final quarter of the Cold Moon.


References:

Ford, D.F. (n.d.). December 2021.  Retrieved from in-the-sky.org

Inverse. (2021). December 2021 Celestial Events: How to See 3 Planets in the Evening Twilight. Retrieved from inverse.com/science/december-2021-celestial-events-jupiter-saturn-venus

Sea and Sky. (2021). Astronomy Calendar of Celestial Events
for Calendar Year 2021. Retrieved from www.seasky.org/astronomy/astronomy-calendar-2021.html

YouTube .(15 November 2021). Astronomy Events December 2021. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/4yVADOZx9-U.

YouTube. (13 November 2021). December 2021 Astronomical Events. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/7kGx2HJWciA

YouTube. (14 November 2021). Astronomy Events December 2021. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/wiHaA7XwjWs

YouTube. (17 November 2021). Upcoming Astronomical Events in December 2021. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/OpQ2ZGqgLMs

YouTube. (14 November 2021). December 2021 Astronomical Events. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/c8KprEGGK84

Celestial Seasonings – November 2021

By Heather Durham | October 31, 2021

Welcome to November’s edition!  This should be an exciting month for sky watchers!  Again this month, we have Halloween Fireballs, two splendid meteor showers and a partial lunar eclipse-the final one for this calendar year, that will also produce a blood moon. 

Once again, I have added videos.  The video contents contain more information than I have written about.  I left them out because either they are not visible to the naked eye or they present themselves for viewing from other parts of the world. There is one for the lunar eclipse by itself. 

View what and as you prefer.  I’m open to any suggestions you may have. Most importantly, however, enjoy the evening skies in the month ahead!


November 8. The Moon and Venus will orbit close to one another and rise to the right.

November 10. The Moon and Saturn will rise to the right in close proximity to one another.

November 11. The Moon will reach first quarter. The Moon and Jupiter will pass by close to each other and orbit towards the right.

November 12. The Northern Taurid meteor shower from Taurus will put on a display this evening. This display is also known as Halloween Fireballs. According to Wikipedia, “Since the meteor stream is rather spread out in space, Earth takes several weeks to pass through it, compared with the much smaller periods of activity in other showers.”

November 17. The Leonid meteor shower from Leo should be prolific this evening. At its prime, it could produce nearly 13 streaks per hour.

Beaver Moon - 1November 19. The Beaver Moon will be full today. There will also be a partial lunar eclipse. The terms penumbra and umbra refer to distinct shadow parts generated by light reflecting on an opaque object. According to In-the-sky.org, viewing time is as follows:

Local Time UTC
01:03 06:03 Moon begins to enter the Earth’s penumbra
02:20 07:20 Moon begins to enters the Earth’s umbra. Partial eclipse begins.
04:04 09:04 Greatest eclipse
05:48 10:48 Moon fully outside the Earth’s umbra. Partial eclipse ends.
07:04 12:04 Moon leaves the Earth’s penumbra

November 21. Tonight, the a-monocerotid meteor shower will put on a display. This is from the Constellation Canis Minor. The speed of this shower is almost as fast as the maximum meteor shower speed.

November 27. The Moon will be in its final quarter.

November 28. The November Orionid meteor shower for this month will be active this evening from the Constellation Orion. As long as the weather is good, there should be minimal interference from the upcoming new moon.


References:

Ford, D.F. (n.d.). November 2021.  Retrieved from in-the-sky.org

Wikipedia, (2021, July 4). Northern Taurids. Retrieved from en.wikipedia.org/Northern

YouTube. (2021, October 8), 19 November 2021 Lunar Eclipse. Retrieved from youtu.be/ppgOYkFGXQQ

YouTube. (2021, September 15). November 2021 Astronomical Events. Retrieved from youtu.be/XEzDZAOU2mA

YouTube. (2021, September 15). November 2021 Astronomical Events Coming in November 2021. Retrieved from youtu.be/lfwa0M1FKmA

Celestial Seasonings – October 2021

By Heather Durham | September 30, 2021

Greetings everyone and welcome to the latest edition of Celestial Seasonings! This month, we have a plethora of meteor showers along with a new YouTube video for this month that I highly recommend you start with before planning your sky watching shows. Included as well, is a link to meteor showers created and maintained by NASA. You can put a meteor shower date on this NASA page and view prior showers. 

Our autumn equinox began in the afternoon of September 22. It’s pumpkin spice and apple picking season. Warm days and cool nights produce the changing color of the leaves on our trees. Then we are able to feast our senses on all that nature has to offer this time of year along with our journeys into the night skies. 

Have a pleasant month, enjoy yourselves and look forward to your astronomical offerings.


October 5. The Camelopardalis meteor shower will put on a fine display this evening. This comes from the Constellation Draco and should produce overnight with its finest show just before dawn. According to Wikipedia, this “is a large but faint Constellation in the northern sky representing a giraffe.”

October 8. On this date, we will enjoy another meteor shower from the Constellation Draco – the Draconids. Dusk will be ideal time for viewing. In 1933 and 1946, the Draconids were “among the most impressive meteor storms of the 21st century.”

October 9. The Moon and Venus will rise closely to one another while rising to the right.

October 10. The Southern Taurid meteor shower in the Constellation Cetus will display for approximately 12 hours from 7 pm until 7 am the next morning. Because of their occurrence in late October and early November, they are also called Halloween Fireballs.” Saturn will begin moving towards the east again.

October 11. The δ-Auridid [Delta-Auridid] meteor shower in the Constellation Auriga will bring a display tonight. The comet Kiess (C/1911_N1) is the source of this shower.

October 12. Tonight, our Moon will be at first quarter.

October 14. The Moon and Saturn will come close to each other and ascend right.

October 15. The Moon and Jupiter will come close to one another and rise to the right.

October 18. Jupiter will begin moving east again. The ε-Geminid [Epsilon-Geminid] meteor shower from the Constellation Gemini should be visible most of the evening. This is one of two meteor showers that do not stem from comets, but from object 3200 Phaethon, an asteroid.

October 20. The full Hunter’s Moon is tonight.

October 21. The Orionids meteor shower from the Constellation Orion will display tonight. According to Wikipedia, this “is the most prolific meteor shower associated with Halley’s Comet.” A dwarf planet known as 136108 Haumea, will travel close by the Sun. The Moon and Uranus will closely approach one another in the evening sky.

October 23. Mercury will move towards half phase and will be visible just before dawn.

October 24. Tonight, the Leonis Minorid meteor shower will put on a display but is faint. This comes from the Constellation Leo Minor. The Moon will move as far away from the Earth in its orbit. Mercury will travel to its farther distance from the Sun.

October 26. The open star cluster, NGC869 in Perseus will be in the evening sky, but difficult to see without equipment.

October 27. NGC884 also from Perseus will be on display but difficult to see with a naked eye.

This and NGC869 may be referred to as a Double Cluster.

October 28. Mercury will reach its highest location in the sky on this date. Venus will move towards half phase. The Moon will be at its last quarter.

October 29. Venus will move to its furthest distance from the Sun.

References:

Ford, D.F. (n.d.). October 2021. Retrieved from in-the-sky.org.

Jenniskens. P. (n.d.). NASA Meteor Shower Portal. Retrieved from cams.seti.org/FDL/index.html

Wikipedia, (2020, April 2). Aurigids. Retrieved from en.Wikipedia.org/wiki/Aurigids.

Wikipedia. (2021, July 28). Camelopardalis. Retrieved from en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Camelopardalis.

Wikipedia. (2021, April 27). Draconids. Retrieved from en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Draconids.

Wikipedia, (2021, August 13). Geminids. Retrieved from en.Wikipedia.org/wiki/Geminids.

Wikipedia, (2021, July 4). Taurids. Retrieved from en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taurids.

YouTube. (2021, September 15). October 2021 Astronomical Events. Retrieved from youtu.be/rCr6y2RIFsY

Celestial Seasonings – September 2021

By Heather Durham | August 31, 2021

This month brings a great deal of activity for sky watchers. We have three meteor showers, the Harvest Moon and also the autumnal equinox along with other sites. I’ve included a Youtube video in the References, which should be viewed first for a close up visual effect. Enjoy folks and feel free to write or comment please. Thank you so much and I hope you have an opportunity to enjoy what’s ahead!


September 1. The Aurigid meteor shower should reach its peak today. From the eastern horizon, this will become visible after 10 pm and remain active until dawn. This shower comes from the constellation Auriga. You may be able to see about 5 showers per hour providing the weather cooperates. The Aurigid does not appear every year according to Wikipedia. The last time it peaked was in 2007.

September 9. The September e-Perseid meteor shower will peak today and will be most vibrant. This is from the Constellation Perseus. The Moon and Venus will rise and head towards the right together. According to Wikipedia, “the constellation gives its name to the Perseid cluster, a massive galaxy cluster located 250 million miles from Earth.

September 10. The Moon and Venus will travel closely to one another.

September 13. The first quarter of the Moon will appear in the shy tonight. Mercury will travel to its further distance from the Sun heading east.

September 15. The Moon and Saturn will rise together and pass each other as closely as ever.

2021-09 - PlanetsSeptember 18. The Moon and Jupiter will rise to the right in close proximity to one another this evening.

September 20. The full Harvest Moon will brighten up the night sky. This is the Harvest Moon for it is the closest one to the autumnal equinox.

September 22. The autumn equinox arrives today in the northern hemisphere and spring in the Southern Hemisphere. An equinox date brings us almost 12 hours or daylight and nightlight.

2021-09 - EarthThis is the second of two equinoxes each year where the center of the Sun lies directly over the Equator.

September 27. The Daytime Sextanid meteor shower from the Constellation Sextans will peak today and might be visible from New Hampshire from around 4:23 pm in the evening until dawn comes just past 6:00 am. According to Wikipedia,” the Constellation is the location of the field studied by the COSMOS Project, under taken by the Hubble Space Telescope.”

September 28. The Harvest Moon will show its last quarter.


References:

Ford, D.F. (n.d.). September 2021. Retrieved from In-the-Sky.Org/Newscal.Php?Month=9&year=2021&maxdiff=1#datesel.

Wikipedia. (2020, April 22). Aurigid. Retrieved from en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aurigids

Wikipedia. (2021, July 13). September e-Perseids. Retrieved from en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perseus_(constellation)

Wikipedia. (2021, July 13). Sextans. Retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sextans

Youtube. (2021, August 14). September 2021 Astronomical Calendar. Retrieved from www.youtube.com/watch?v=jDDAXcbbkKg

Celestial Seasonings – August 2021

By Heather Durham | July 31, 2021

Greetings Folks! I hope you are enjoying your summer and sky watching. This month, I added three videos that will give you a greater perspective as well as more in-depth information on our evening skies this month. There is one about our Moon, the most popular as well as easily visible happenings, plus.

The day will come when diligent research over long periods will bring to light things that now are hidden. A single life time, even though entirely devoted to research, would not be enough for the investigation of so vast a subject… And so this knowledge will be unfolded through long suggestive ages. There will come a time when our descendants will be amazed that we did not know things that are so plain to them… Many discoveries are reserved for ages still to come, when memory of us will have been effaced. Our universe is a sorry little affair unless it has in it something for every age to investigate… Nature does not reveal her mysteries once and for all (Seneca, Natural Questions, Book 7, ca. first century).

This month, we have the Perseids, the Seasonal Blue Moon and more so let’s get to reading this summarization.

August 2. Saturn will align with the Earth and Sun. Saturn will be as high as it ever is as well as very bright.

Sunrise Behind EarthWhen a planet is at opposition, it forms a straight line with the Earth and the Sun, with the Earth at the center of the three. According to Royal Observatory in London, opposition typically presents the best opportunities for viewing far-off planets like Jupiter, Uranus and Neptune because the planets will be brightly illuminated and riding high in the sky (Smithsonianmag.com).

August 11. The Moon and Venus will rise and ascend close together.

August 12. The Perseid meteor shower will peak today. Between moonset and dawn the next morning will be for prime viewing.

August 15. The Moon will be at first quarter.

SaturnAugust 20. The Moon and Saturn will ascend closely together.

August 22. The Moon and Jupiter will rise closely to one another. Jupiter will be bright and right above the moon then later, to the right of the Moon. The Sturgeon Blue Moon will be full.

The moon’s name derives from America’s largest freshwater fish, the lake sturgeon. While they used to thrive, sturgeon fish are now one of the most critically endangered species. Legend has it that, during August’s full moon, you can still catch a glimpse of a sturgeon fish in America’s lakes (Countryliving.com).

August 24. Mercury will peak today.

August 30. The Moon will be at its last quarter.


References:

Brian Dunbar, B.D. (2020, April 10). Planets. Retrieved from https://solarsystem.nasa.gov/planets/overview/

Eyes Turned Skyward. (2021). Astronomy & Cosmology. Retrieved from www.eyesturnedskyward.com/astronomyquotes.html 

Ford, D.F. (2021, July 10). August 2021 Events. Retrieved from https://in-the-sky.org/newscal.php?month=8&year=2021&maxdiff=1#datesel

McGreevy, N.M. (2021, January 7). 10 Celestial Events to Look Forward to in 2021. Retrieved from https://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/ten-celestial-events-look-forward-2021-180976687/

Nieskins, A.N. [Old Farmer’s Almanac]. (2019, April 30). The Full Moon [Video]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/jiRUNI_GDwk

Now, N.N. [New Now]. (2021a, June 26). Perseids Meteor Shower 2021 [Video]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/tnluA3d6ehA

Now, N.N. [New Now]. (2021b, July 1). Blue Moon, August 22, 2021 [Video]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/MmDP6WKUe4c

Walden, L.W. (2020, August 2). The Sturgeon Moon. Retrieved from https://www.countryliving.com/uk/news/a28560453/full-sturgeon-moon-august/

The Long Arm of The Commonwealth

By Ian Aikens | July 21, 2021

Is there such a thing as a “temporary tax”? Having come from the late great State of California several years ago, I never experienced such a phenomenon myself, but perhaps Granite State workers who work for Massachusetts companies will experience it themselves come September 14, 2021.

This tale of government overreach began on April 21 of last year when the Massachusetts legislature passed “The Proposed Rule,” which allowed work performed in New Hampshire to be taxable to the State of Massachusetts.  Things went from bad to worse in October of 2020 when the Massachusetts Department of Revenue extended the ruling indefinitely as the lockdown and emergency orders dragged on and on. To make things look kosher, there was a public hearing on the issue, but it was held five months after the rule went into effect.

The plot thickened when the State of New Hampshire filed a lawsuit with the US Supreme Court on October 20, 2020 suing the State of Massachusetts for violating the US Constitution, specifically the Commerce Clause and Due Process Clause. The Commerce Clause is supposed to restrict individual states’ powers of regulation, and the Due Process Clause prohibits the government from depriving life, liberty, or property unless authorized by law.

Aside from the moral and constitutional issues involved, we’re talking about a lot of money here. Massachusetts charges a 5% state income tax, and the number of employees affected by this issue ranges from 80,000 to 110,000 New Hampshire residents who work for companies based in Massachusetts.

Here’s the issue. Prior to the lockdowns, New Hampshire residents who commuted to Massachusetts for their jobs did not have to pay Massachusetts state income tax for the days they worked from home. Thus, if employees commuted to Boston 4 days/week and worked at home on Fridays, they would only pay Massachusetts income tax on 80% of their wages that week.  But when the lockdowns were decreed, most New Hampshire residents were commuting into Massachusetts 0% of the time. The ruling, which went into effect March 10, 2020 meant they would still pay Massachusetts state income tax on 80% of their wages as if they were still commuting, as it used the period of January 1, 2020-February 29, 2020 as a tax basis.

Switching away from a user fee standard was clearly an outrage. If New Hampshire residents were no longer using Massachusetts roads, police, and other infrastructure services while they remained in New Hampshire (which did provide those services or at least the availability of them), why should they have to pay for them? A residence-based taxation model where taxes are paid where public services are consumed is a fairer way to collect taxes. What justification did the bureaucrats provide for changing the rule midstream? If it was a reasonable rule before the lockdown—which it was—by what right did they change it?

Government bureaucrats never lack for excuses when it comes to overreaching into people’s lives—and especially their pocketbooks. They don’t miss a beat.  Acting Solicitor General Elizabeth Prelogar, who advised the US Supreme Court not to take the case because she sided with tax-hungry Massachusetts, did concede that police and fire protection for the New Hampshire residents who work at home would be provided by New Hampshire, not Massachusetts. However, she noted, “Yet that resident’s work also may continue to depend on and benefit from services provided by Massachusetts. For example, Massachusetts and its municipalities may provide similar protections to the infrastructure and staff critical to the work of the New Hampshire resident who is temporarily working at home—such as computer servers that enable and store the employee’s work product, courts that enforce contracts, and financial institutions and transactions necessary to the work.”

This is quite a stretch. Computer servers? They are often stored in a different state, especially to protect the company’s data if there is some type of natural disaster. Yes, the courts are there to support businesses, but aren’t they in existence to support all of society? Wouldn’t they be there even if the New Hampshire employee didn’t work for the Massachusetts firm? Besides, the courts charge all manner of fees for their services to the users, so why should an employee in another state also have to pay? As for financial institutions, aren’t these supposed to be private institutions supported by fees paid by their customers?

The obvious truth to the matter is that Taxachusetts earned its shameful name because of its model of extreme tax extraction to support a bloated bureaucracy. Instead of cutting back and laying off unneeded employees—just like private, voluntary businesses were forced to do during the lockdowns—the state arbitrarily changed the rules so it would have enough revenue to continue to pay its army of bureaucrats. An army of workers, I might add, that suffered no economic losses during the lockdowns and continued to get the same pay for doing less work. “Nice work if you can get it.”

Although ultimately the US Supreme Court declined to hear the case, we haven’t heard the last of this issue. The lawsuit was watched nationally because other states also apply the “convenience of the employer” (COTE) rule, which says that if the employee is working at home for his convenience, not the company’s, then the income is taxable to the employer’s location. The states of Arkansas, Delaware, Nebraska, New York, and Pennsylvania use the COTE rule, and Connecticut uses it too but only if the taxpayer resident’s state applies a similar rule. With many state governments operating on oversized budgets and the impending economic troubles ahead, you can bet that they are going to be very creative to change their rules too like Massachusetts to extract as much income as possible from employees working remotely in another state.

What is most interesting about this bruhaha between New Hampshire and Massachusetts is the reaction of several of our Congressional representatives. They have all been outraged by Massachusetts’ sudden change of the rules to sustain its bureaucracy. US Senator Jeanne Shaheen called the Massachusetts tax an “abuse of Granite State workers.” US Senator Maggie Hassan proclaimed her opposition by saying, “I’ve long said that attempts by other states to unfairly tax New Hampshire residents are unconstitutional.” US Rep Annie Kuster called the tax grab “outrageous and an unfair tax burden on our state’s workers.” US Rep Chris Pappas also complained about workers “being forced to pay an unfair income tax.”

Unfortunately, this deathbed conversion to supporting lower taxes seems at odds with their voting records. Senator Sheehan sponsored S.411, which increased the federal tax on all tobacco products. When she was governor, Maggie Hassan signed SB367, which increased New Hampshire state gas and diesel taxes by 4.2 cents per gallon. When it came to amending the state constitution with an income tax ban, Annie Kuster’s vote was a definitive NO because “we shouldn’t tie the hands of future generations.” (Actually yes, we should tie the hands of politicians from increasing taxes.) To his credit, Rep Pappas has been particularly aggressive in the fight against Massachusetts taxing New Hampshire workers, but he has repeatedly called for the repeal of the 2017 Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, which even the New York Times admitted lowered taxes for most Americans.

Sadly, I suspect that our congressional representatives are more concerned about getting in trouble with their constituents back home and getting voted out of office than any principled opposition to higher overall tax extractions. Furthermore, if the shoe were on the other foot and they were senators and congressional representatives for Massachusetts, I’ll bet they’d take a completely different stance on the issue.

In the end, since Massachusetts Governor Baker gave notice that the latest COVID-19 state of emergency ended on June 15, 2021, the tax rule remains in effect for an additional 90 days. We will have to wait and see what the bureaucrats cook up when the telecommuting tax ends on September 14, 2021 and they can no longer collect the tax on days when New Hampshire residents still work from home. Those who supported the rule change always said that it was meant to be temporary and strictly in response to the pandemic as an emergency measure only. While more residents will be back to working in the office in Massachusetts, clearly more telecommuting is here to stay.

What will Massachusetts bureaucrats do to fill the black (tax) hole? I don’t believe they will tighten their belts as it’s not in their DNA, but I hope that I’m wrong. Maybe someone can invent a vaccine to inoculate taxpayers against politicians and bureaucrats.

References:

Berube, Selene. (2021, March 24). New Hampshire v. Massachusetts: Massachusetts Extraterritorial Taxation of New Hampshire Residents. Retrieved from New Hampshire v. Massachusetts: Massachusetts Extraterritorial Taxation of New Hampshire Residents – The Justice Journal (gwjusticejournal.com)

Bookman, Todd. (2021, May 26). Justice Department Sides with Massachusetts in Cross-Border Tax Fight With N.H. Retrieved from Justice Department Sides with Massachusetts in Cross-Border Tax Fight With N.H. | New Hampshire Public Radio (nhpr.org)

Brown, Samuel. (2021, June 7). State of New Hampshire v. Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Retrieved from State of New Hampshire v. Commonwealth of Massachusetts | Marcum LLP | Accountants and Advisors

Cline, Andrew. (2021, May 28). Biden administration argues that states can tax non-resident telecommuters. Retrieved from Biden administration argues that states can tax non-resident telecommuters – THE JOSIAH BARTLETT CENTER FOR PUBLIC POLICY (jbartlett.org)

DiStaso, John. (2021, May 27). Hassan, Shaheen join in introducing bill to stop Massachusetts from taxing NH home workers. Retrieved from Hassan, Shaheen join in introducing bill to stop Massachusetts from taxing NH home workers (wmur.com)

DiStaso, John and Mackin, Jean. (2021, May 27). NH Primary Source: Biden administration sides with Massachusetts over NH in income tax court battle. Retrieved from NH Primary Source: Biden administration sides with Massachusetts over NH in income tax court battle (wmur.com)

Graham, Michael. (2020, September 23). Mowers Targets Pappas Over Support for New Taxes, Tax Hikes. Retrieved from Mowers Targets Pappas Over Support for New Taxes, Tax Hikes – InsideSources

Landrigan, Kevin. (2021, Jan 25). High court seeks help in settling NH-Mass tax fight. Retrieved from High court seeks help in settling NH-Mass tax fight | Courts | unionleader.com

Pinho, Rute. (2021, January 15). Convenience of the Employer Rule.  Retrieved from Convenience of the Employer Rule (ct.gov)

Sahadi, Jeanne. (2021, March 30). Tax experts focus on possible Supreme Court case over NH lawsuit against Mass. Retrieved from Possible Supreme Court case over NH lawsuit against Mass. could affect other states (wmur.com)

WMUR9. (2012, November 3). Kuster, Bass differ on taxes, foreign policy in debate.  Retrieved from Kuster, Bass differ on taxes, foreign policy in debate (wmur.com)

H.E. Wentworth’s Diary Entries, Miltonia Mills – 1935-54

By Joyce Wentworth Cunningham | July 4, 2021

Continued from H.E. Wentworth’s Diary Entries, Miltonia Mills – 1928-34

1935

Wentworth, Harry E. - Per Joyce W. Cunningham
Harry E. Wentworth (Per Joyce W. Cunningham).

January 2: Was in the office as usual. Not doing much in the mill.

January 5: Norman is driving [the town snowplow] part of the time as there is no work in the mill just now.

[WEST MILTON. The new snowplow made its appearance this week and did a good job. It was run by Bard Plummer, Jr. (Farmington News, January 4, 1935). The diarist’s son, Norman L. Wentworth (1903-1991) might have been driving an older snowplow, presumably in Milton Mills or Milton, or the new one on a different shift].

The next mention of the mill was the day following a “North-easter” that had deposited up to 18 inches of snow over the countryside.

[BLIZZARD HITS NEW ENGLAND. SNOW COVERS ALL SIX STATES. New England was buried in snow today after an all-night blizzard, the worst in 14 years, which took seven lives and completely disrupted transportation. Sixteen inches of snow fell in Boston, 28 in Portland, .Me., while hundreds of highways were impassable because of drifts which swirled to depths of 10 and 12 feet. Four men succumbed in Massachusetts to exertion caused by battling snow drifts, while Connecticut reported one death indirectly due to the storm. Two persons died in Rhode Island from over exertion. Not a ship moved in or out of Boston harbor during the night; not a train was able to leave either the North or South terminals from shortly before midnight until after 5 o’clock this morning. Coast Guards along the storm-tossed seas of Massachusetts Bay sought for in vain the little fishing schooner, the Josephine, missing since yesterday noon with a crew of 3. All hotels were taxed t0 capacity during the night and thousands were forced to sleep in railroad and bus terminals. At Nashua 200 employes in a mill who completed work at 2 a.m. were unable to go to their homes. Cots were provided for them and they slept in the mill. It was 11 above in Boston early today, 8 above in Portland and 4 above at Keene, N.H. Rhode Island had 11½ inches of snow. Trolley and bus services were stalled and hundreds were marooned in theatres. Spectators at a hockey game were forced to spend the night in the auditorium on benches. Vermont was the .only New England state to escape the full fury of the blizzard. Only four inches of snow fell at Montpelier, but a strong wind and near zero temperature caused considerable discomfort (Portsmouth Herald, January 24, 1935).

January 24: So bad traveling the mill didn’t run. I didn’t go over at all.

The following day the mill still did not fun, but he worked in the office. Obviously, sometime between January 5 and 24 the late December dye problem had been resolved and the mill was back in production.

February 4: Halton has gone to Boston for 2 or 3 days. They are not doing anything in the Finishing Room at the mill for a few days.

February 11: Not doing much at the mill.

February 18: Not doing much in the mill. Halton went to N.Y. last Saturday night. Will probably be back Wednesday.

February 28: Nothing doing in the mill now – nobody working. I am in the office every day so far. Expect to get going again soon.

[MILTON MILLS. Mr. and Mrs. Halton Hayes went to Boston one day last week and visited the flower show (Farmington News, April 5, 1935)].

April 8: Didn’t go to the office. Going to be out Mondays & Thursdays for a while.

April 24: Nothing doing at the mill so I didn’t go over.

June 10: They started up the mill this morning. I shall probably be in the office more after this week.

July 29: Our new Supt. went to work this morning. George [Stevens] will stay a few days with him. His father is here as Boss Spinner.

[The father, John H. Gard, a blanket mill foreman [i.e., the “Boss Spinner,”] aged sixty-five years (b. MA), headed a Milton household at the time of the Sixteenth (1940) Federal Census. His household included his wife, Annie I. [(Mitton)] Gard, aged sixty-six years (b. OH). John H. Gard rented their house at 329 Main Street, for $10 per month. They had resided in the same house in 1935].

August 6: Our new Supt. at the mill, Mr. Gard, is starting in well. It looks as though we would be going better soon.

[The new superintendent was said to have been the son of the boss spinner, who had six sons. Only one lived anywhere near Milton Mills at this time. Frank C. Gard, a restaurant proprietor, aged thirty-six years (b. MA), headed a Milton household at the time of the Sixteenth (1940) Federal Census. His household included Mary M. Gard, a restaurant proprietor, aged forty-two years (b. ME). Frank C. Gard rented their house in the Milton Community, for $6 per per month. They had resided in the same place, i.e., in Milton although not in the same house, in 1935. (It would seem that he filled the frequent downtime at the mill in having a mom-and-pop restaurant)].

August 9: Geo. Stevens finished up at the mill to-day and will go home to Vt. to-morrow. His health is poor.

Stevens, GA - NA360527[Retired Superintendent George A. Stevens advertised his 10-room Northfield, VT, house for sale in August 1935. It was steam heated, with modern improvements (Burlington Free Press, August 15, 1935). Mr. Wentworth’s assessment of Stevens’ health was correct. He was in the Mayo Memorial Hospital in Northfield, VT, for a septic sore throat in December 1936, but was recuperating in January 1937 (News and Advertiser (Northfield, VT), December 30, 1936; News and Advertiser (Northfield, VT), January 7, 1937). He and his wife were living in Manchester, NH, by June 1938 (News and Advertiser (Northfield, VT), June 16, 1938). He died in the Masonic Home in Manchester, NH, May 7, 1943, aged seventy-five years, four months, and eight days. Mrs. Stevens predeceased him. NORTHFIELD FALLS. Word has been received of the death of George A. Stevens of Manchester, N.H. Burial took place Thursday afternoon in the Northfield Falls cemetery. Mr. Stevens was superintendent of the Charles M. Davis Co. Woolen mill and has many friends in this vicinity (Burlington Free Press (Burlington, VT), May 7, 1943)].

August 26: Halton & Mr. Gard went to N.Y. to-night.

August 28: Lots of trade in the Blanket Sales Room these days.

October 1 (a Tuesday): Mill closed to-night for the rest of the week – waiting for binding.

October 26: Worked in the office all day – sold quite a lot of blankets. Halton went to the Harvard-Dartmouth football game.

[HARVARD OPPOSES DARTMOUTH TEAM. Cambridge. Mass, Oct. 26 (AP.) Dartmouth’s Indians, unbeaten in four games in which they scored 188 points, today encountered a Harvard team that was sent on a comeback after losses to Holy Cross and Army. Despite signs of improvement by the Crimson, Dartmouth remained the favorite in the 42nd clash of the series (North Adams Transcript (North Adams, MA), October 26, 1935). Dartmouth won the game, 14-6].

November 7: So much work in the office I have to be there about every day.

November 22: Halton, Agnes, Paul [their son], & Ing started for a trip to Cuba & The West Indies. Will be gone about 10 days.

[Ing and Agnes at least had been to Cuba before. Ingeborg V. Townsend of 2509 Binz Ave., Houston, TX, sailed on United Fruit’s S.S. Atenas from Havana, Cuba, December 30, 1932, arriving in New Orleans, LA, January 2, 1933. She was forty years of age (b. Boston, MA, March 21, 1892). Agnes Hayes of Milton Mills, NH, sailed on the S.S. Munargo from Havana, Cuba, February 23, 1934, arriving in Miami, FL, February 24, 1934. She was thirty-four years of age (b. Milton Mills, NH, May 25, 1900)].

November 23: Worked in the office all day – most of the help worked. Getting out quite a lot of blankets now.

November 30 (a Saturday): Worked in the office all day. Mill was running to make up for Thurs. [Thanksgiving].

December 4: Halton & Agnes came home last night.

December 28 (a Saturday): Not feeling very well. Went over to the office about 2 ½ hrs. in A.M. and 2 hrs. in P.M. Halton is away to-day. The mill is running to make up for Christmas.

1936

January 1: The mill was running to-day, so I was in the office.

January 6: Stacking up a little in the mill to let the finishing room catch up. They are some 125 or more cuts behind.

January 10: Slowing down quite a bit in the mill – letting part of the help go for a few weeks.

January 20: Not doing much of anything in the mill this week – waiting for instructions from N.Y. on a large order we have.

Although, Grandpa appears to be working regularly at the mill, the next mention of its operation was on . . .

April 15: Starting to do a little more in the mill this week.

From time to time, Grandpa records some of Uncle Hal’s trips to Boston and New York, apparently in connection with mill business, especially sales.

June 23 (a Tuesday): Mill closed to-night for the rest of the week. One of the cards needs repairs.

July 17: The mill closed down for 2 weeks to do some repairs and wait for shipping orders.

On August 4: Grandpa records that about 4:30 a very heavy shower with a small hurricane struck us. He goes on to describe the damage done to a number of homes in Milton Mills. The next day [August 5] he continues with more storm destruction ending with Shingles were blown off several buildings including the mill.

[Headlines of the Boston Globe for August 5 were: STORM ENDS HEAT; LOSS HEAVY. Wind and Rain Wreak Havoc. Peak Rush Here Hit – Streets Flooded. Lighting Cut Off in Many Places].

August 10: Mill hasn’t started up yet. They are shingling the main building.

August 22 (a Saturday): Worked in the office in P.M. Halton went away. We keep the office open on Saturdays on acct. of the blanket trade which is pretty good this year.

August 27: Didn’t work to-day – am going to be in the office only 3 days per week unless Halton is out.

September 21: The mill started up this morning.

September 24: In the office all day. Halton & Agnes took Paul to West Newton where he is going to school.

[Educational Opportunities. … Among other well-known private schools within the [Newton, MA] city are Mt. Ida School, Allen, Fessenden, and Country Day Schools (Newton Directory, 1936)].

October 12 (Columbus Day): We did not observe the holiday. Business in the Sales Room was rushing – sold more blankets than any day this summer.

Other than noting Worked in the office today, as usual from time to time, the mill is not mentioned again in his 1936 diary. Apparently, this was a good year for the mill and its workers.

[MILTON MILLS TO BE HOST TO ROCHESTER DISTRICT SCOUTERS. Announcement has been made by Edward H. Young, field executive of the Daniel Webster Council, that Milton Mills will act as host to the Rochester district committee and its guests on the occasion of the regular bi-monthly meeting of the district on Monday, December 21. The Milton Mills Scout committee, composed of Halton Hayes, Herbert Nickerson, William Woodbury, Frank Gard, and Rev. Frank Snell, are in charge of the program. A supper will be served at 6.30 and following that a court of honor and the business meeting of the district committee will be held. All Scouts who have earned awards are requested to be present to receive their certificates. … (Farmington News, December 18, 1936)].

1937

Grandpa recorded that he worked in the office all day on a regular basis throughout January and February.

March 6: Worked in the office all day. Lots to do for me there now. So many gov. reports to make out.

April 21: Halton went to N.Y. last night.

May 5: Took a day off.

June 21: Halton’s mother is very sick and he has been out of the office most of the day. She is here with him and Agnes.

June 22: Halton’s mother died this morning.

[Hattie [(Pinkham)] Hayes died of bronchial pneumonia at 26 Lowell Street, Milton Mills, June 22, 1937, aged seventy-five years, seven months, and fifteen days. P.A. Kimball, M.D., of Union signed the death certificate].

June 24: Funeral of Halton’s mother occurred at Rochester this P.M.

August 4: Nothing doing at the mill yet.

August 10: Halton went to Boston this A.M. – will be back to-morrow night.

August 30: Started up the mill this morning with a few hands in.

September 6: Labor Day Mill & office closed.

September 7: Mill is getting started pretty well, half of the looms going today.

September 22: Pretty busy in the Sales Room these days. Halton was out this P.M. and I was so busy I didn’t get home until 6:30.

September 27: Halton went to N.Y. Louie is staying in the office while he is away.

That might have been Louie Young.

[Louis A. Young, a cotton & woolen mill salesman, aged thirty-seven years (b. ME), headed a Melrose, MA, household at the time of the Sixteenth (1940) Federal Census. His household included his wife, Dorothy [(Goodale)] Young, aged thirty-five years (b. NY). Louis A. Young rented their apartment at 71 West Wyoming Ave., for $35 per month. They had resided in Strafford County, NH, in 1935].

October 15: Halton is having the office painted and re-modeled a little inside.

October 26: Halton went to N.Y. to-night – will come back tomorrow night.

December 11: Went over to the office and got some of my books and did a little work on them in the P.M. They are oiling the office floors.

1938

This was another quiet year at the mill with the usual “ups and downs” of business. Judging by his occasional entries of “went to the office to-day as usual” Grandpa worked all the time, but sometimes for only three days a week.

February 22 (Washington’s Birthday): Holiday and the mill didn’t run, but I worked all day.

[The Federal Uniform Holidays Bill of 1968 would cause most Federal holidays to fall on Mondays. It consolidated also Washington’s Birthday (February 22), which was a Federal holiday, and Lincoln’s Birthday (February 12), which was not (although many states celebrated it), into a single Presidents’ Day, which acknowledged all of the presidents].

March 1: Halton is about sick with a cold. Was in the office a few minutes this morning and went home for the day.

March 3: We had a little fire scare at about 3:30. Sparks from the chimney ignited the shingles on Eugene Runnell’s house causing quite a little blaze, but not doing much damage. They put it out with the chemical from the mill.

The mill must have had its own fire department as Grandpa has mentioned at other times that the mill’s firemen helped put out a fire.

[Othello D. Runnells, a leatherboard mill counterman, aged thirty-seven years (b. ME), headed a Milton (“Milton Mills”) household at the time of the Sixteenth (1940) Federal Census. His household included his wife, Pearl E. Runnels, aged thirty-six years (b. MA), his children, June E. Runnels, aged eighteen years (b. NH), Robert D. Runnels, aged eight years (b. NH), his father, Eugene E. Runnels, aged sixty-five years (b. ME), and his landlord [landlady], Susie Steven, aged seventy-eight years (b. NH). Othello D. Runnells rented their house, for $8 per month].

April 11: Halton went to N.Y. last night.

April 13 (a Wednesday): Halton came home this morning. We are going to run only 3 days per week for a while. There is almost no business in N.Y. We closed to-night for the rest of the week.

April 29: I went over to the office in A.M. but there was nothing to do.

May 18: Mill closed to-night for 2 weeks. No business.

Grandpa continued to work in the office throughout the summer – presumably on his three-days-a-week schedule.

Miltonia Blanket - 1938September 19: The mill started up this morning.

September 20: Worked in the office. Shall be in there more now.

November 23: Mill closed to-night for the rest of the week. [Thanksgiving weekend].

Grandpa was still working regularly at the end of the year with no further mention of the mill being shut down, so we may assume the year ended well for the mill and its workers.

1939

[$7.50 Pepperell Miltonia Blankets, pure wool in rose, blue, green, peach, rust and tan – 72×84 … Sale Price $6.48 (Brattleboro Reformer, January 5, 1939)].

January 11: Worked in the office all day. Mill closed to-night for the rest of the week – going on 3 days a week for a while.

January 25: Worked in the office. Business is poor – doubt if we do much for a while after this week.

January 30: Mill not running this week so I didn’t go over to the office to-day.

Grandpa was still working in the office periodically, but evidently not regularly as he complained that he “was doing a lot of sitting around these days.”

March 21: Worked in the office. They have been getting out a new blanket, 2 ¼ lb. which seems to be taking well. They call it the “Wentworth,” and have some orders already.

The mill must have shut down again soon after this. Perhaps the “Wentworth” blanket didn’t “take” as well as hoped!

April 17: Mill started this morning and the whistle blew.

For the next five months Grandpa appears to have been working in the office only one day a week (usually Tuesday) judging by his other days’ “work” activities – painting, papering, plowing, planting, and picking, and trips to his camp on Wilson Lake on the other side of Acton. I was mystified until I came to his late September entries.

September 26 (a Tuesday): Worked in the office. We have a new Supt., Mr. Herrick, who went to work yesterday.

[The new superintendent was William E. Herrick (1888-1970). As was the case with the former superintendent George A. Stevens, Mr. Herrick left his wife behind at their home base of West Newton, MA, and came to Milton Mills on his own. Despite taking the superintendent’s job in Milton Mills in 1939, he would be enumerated both in West Newton, MA, and Concord, MA, in 1940, while registering for the draft in Milton in 1942. (Ms. Cunningham has noted throughout the intermittent nature of Miltonia Mills’ production runs during these years)].

[William E. Herrick, a textile superintendent, aged fifty-two years (b. MA), headed a Newton, MA, household at the time of the Sixteenth (1940) Federal Census. His household included his wife, Elsie M. [(Crowninshield)] Herrick, aged fifty-one years (b. NY), and his children, Roger Herrick, assistant buyer for a retail department store, aged twenty-six years (b. NY), Louise Herrick, a cemetery bookkeeper, aged twenty-one years (b. NY), and Stewart A. Herrick, aged nineteen years (b. Canada). William E. Herrick owned their house at 129 Randlett Park, which was valued at $8,000. Elsie M. Herrick supplied the census information. They had all resided in Troy, NY, in 1935].

September 27: Worked in the office. Halton went to N.Y.

October 2: Worked in the office. Peggy is sick.

Peggy Fletcher was out for over a week and Grandpa worked in her stead. I am guessing that the mill had been running throughout the summer, but Grandpa had chosen to work only one day a week. He would have been 70 years old in 1939 and had been cutting back on his farm work load as well. Although he still had a large garden and hens, he no longer had his cows and horses and the care they entailed.

[Harry P. Fletcher, a painter (own shop), aged forty-seven years (b. ME), headed a Milton (“Milton Mills”) household at the time of the Sixteenth (1940) Federal Census. His household included his wife, Laura E. [(Young)] Fletcher, aged forty-two years (b. ME), and his children, Fanny E. [“Peggy”] Fletcher, a blanket mill bookkeeper, aged twenty years (b. ME), Harry Fletcher, Jr., a shoe factory packer, aged eighteen years (b. ME), Maurice Fletcher, aged seventeen years (b. ME), and Harvey Fletcher, aged thirteen years (b. NH). Harry P. Fletcher owned their house in Milton Mills Center, which was valued at $1,000. They had all lived in the same house in 1935. The household of Halton R. Hayes appeared on the same census page].

The only entries for the rest of the year were Worked in the office on Tuesdays and once when he worked in the office because Uncle Halton had gone to New York.

1940

For two weeks in the middle of January Grandpa worked nearly every day “closing up the books for the year.”

January 23: Around home all day. Can’t do much more in the office until Halton gets the inventory ready for me.

He continued his one-day-a-week schedule for the next couple of months. There is nothing in his diary to indicate whether or not the mill was operating.

March 26: Worked in the office all day. Halton has gone to N.Y. and Peggy is sick.

March 27: Worked in the office. Halton came home this morning. He got an order for blankets and will start the mill as soon as he can get the colors wanted.

April 22: Worked in the office all day. Peggy is out this week and Halton is going away next week so I shall have to be there about all of the time.

April 29: Peggy came back to work this morning. Halton & Agnes started their vacation yesterday.

He continued to work every day until Halton came back.

May 9: Halton came home last night so I didn’t have to work to-day.

May 21: Worked in the office. Halton has gone on a vacation so I will have to work until he returns.

May 22: Worked in the office. Mill hasn’t started up yet, but they have got one or two looms going.

Uncle Halton must have had a very short vacation; he returned two days later and Grandpa went back to his every Tuesday workday for the next few months.

July 1: Mill started up this morning – whistle blew.

August 26: Worked in the office. Shall probably work 3 days this week as they are quite busy. Lots of people in the sales-room. Sold over $400 worth to-day. They are running 2 shifts in the mill now – began a week ago.

September 3: Worked in the office. Ruth Ramsey Tanner came in to work. Don’t know whether they will need me much more or not.

[Ruth Ramsey married in Acton, ME, September 20, 1936, Vincent Tanner, she of Milton and he of Lebanon, ME. She was a bookkeeper, aged twenty-five years, and he was a laborer, aged twenty-three years. Rev. Frank H. Snell performed the ceremony].

September 5: Worked in the office. They called me back for a day or two. Lots of work there now.

Grandpa continued to work in the office on Tuesdays for the rest of the year, but the diary contains nothing else about the mill.

1941

In January and February, Grandpa recorded working an occasional day here and there.

February 27: Worked in the office. They haven’t got the books closed for last year.

He worked in the office a couple of days a week for the next two or three weeks.

March 19, 20, 21, and 24: Worked in the office.

March 24: Worked in the office. Peggy is having a hard time. Blood poison or something of that kind. She is down at Rochester to see the Dr. every day.

Grandpa continued to work full time until . . .

April 2: Worked in the office. Peggy got home yesterday and was in to see us to-day. She expects to be back to work next week.

That was a Wednesday. Grandpa worked Thursday and Friday. Presumably, Peggy returned to work on Monday.

I am not sure how long Peggy Fletcher worked there after this year, but I do know that at some time Marion Lowd (Willey) replaced her. Marion was my teacher in the one-room school house on Fox Ridge in Acton for many years. That school closed at the end of the 1940-41 school year and not long after that she became the mill’s bookkeeper.

[Albert Lowd, a farmer (dairy farm), aged thirty-eight years (b. ME), headed an Acton, ME, household at the time of the Sixteenth (1940) Federal Census. His household included his wife, Doris [(Rowell)] Lowd, a [Milton Mills] public school teacher, aged thirty-seven years (b. ME), his children, Enid Lowd, aged thirteen years (b. ME), and Lois Lowd, aged eleven years (b. ME), his mother, Clara [(Page)] Lowd, aged seventy years (b. NH), and his sister, Marian Lowd, a public school teacher, aged thirty-two years (b. ME). Albert Lowd owned their house “near Milton Mills,” which was valued at $2,500. They had all resided in the same house in 1935].

[Fanny Ellen [“Peggy”] Fletcher married in Sanbornville, [Wakefield,] NH, October 9, 1943, William Hanson, she of Milton Mills and he of Sanbornville, [Wakefield,] NH. She was a secretary, aged twenty-three years, and he was a dairy farmer, aged twenty-five years. Rev. Bradford Ketchum performed the ceremony].

[Marion E. Lowd married in [Acton,] ME, February 8, 1945, Charles P. Willey, she of Acton, ME, and he of Sanbornville, [Wakefield,] NH.

There are no more references to the mill that year, including no mention of him having “worked in the office.”

Nowhere does Grandpa indicate that he has retired, but all indications are that he has, in fact, done so. As you can see from the following entries, he adds very little to the mill’s history from this time on. I had hoped to learn a little more about what led to its demise and how it became Greene Tanning Company.

1942

Not a word about the mill!

[Halton Rex Hayes of Church Street, Milton Mills, registered for the WW II military draft in Milton, April 27, 1942. He was forty-eight years of age (b. Rochester, NH, December 29, 1893), and employed in Milton Mills. His telephone number was Milton Mills 39-3. His contact was Mrs. Agnes T. Hayes, of Milton Mills. He was 5′ 10″ in height, weighed 180 pounds, and had blue eyes, gray hair, and a light complexion].

[William Edward Herrick of Milton Mills registered for the WW II military draft in Milton, April 27, 1942. He was fifty-four years of age (b. Lowell, MA, March 3, 1888), and employed at the Miltonia Mill in Milton Mills. He had no telephone number. His contact was Mrs. Elsie M. Herrick, of 129 Randlett Park, West Newton, Mass. He was 5′ 10″ in height, weighed 175 pounds, and had brown eyes, brown hair, and a dark complexion].

1943

February 12: Fire broke out in the picker room of the mill about 3 P.M. and caused quite an excitement in town for a while. It was put out without a great deal of damage, mostly from water.

June 12: They are having a new smokestack over at the mill. The old one was taken down this morning and they are getting ready to put up the new one.

September 18: Fred Simes [former mill superintendent] is here from California. He called on us after we got home from the camp.

Grandpa had a camp on Wilson Lake in Acton.

[Fred Sims, a whl. [wholesale] textile manager (own business), aged seventy-two years (b. NH), headed a Los Angeles, CA, household at the time of the Sixteenth (1940) Federal Census. His household included his wife, Mary Sims, aged seventy-one years (b. NH), and his son, Harold Sims, a whl. [wholesale] textile manager (own business), aged fifty-three years (b. NH). Fred Sims rented their house at 3966 West Avenue, for $38 per month. They had all resided in the same place, i.e., Los Angeles, CA, in 1935].

December 13: Fred Simes, who has been here from Cal. for over 2 months waiting for train accommodations to return and take Laura with him, got word this morning that May is dead. He has reservations for the 16th and can’t go until then.

Fred’s wife’s name was Mary. Was May a “familiar” name for Mary? Or did Grandpa make a rare spelling mistake?!

[Frederick H. “Fred” Simes and Laura E. (Simes) Roberts were siblings, children of Edwin S. and Mary E. (Lowd) Simes (and grandchildren of Milton Mills’ Bray U. Simes (1801-1885)). Fred’s wife, Mary A. “May” (Smith) Simes died in Los Angeles, CA, December 13, 1943, aged seventy-three years, eight months, and twenty-seven days].

1944

February 12: Heard to-day that Ing Townsend is married to Harold Simes in Los Angeles. She went out there in December.

[Ingeborg V. Townsend married in Anaheim, CA, January 14, 1944, Harold E. Simes. Later, Ingeborg V. Townsend Simes divorced Harold E. Simes, both of Milton Mills, in Strafford County Court, June 9, 1949].

Harold was Fred Simes’ son.

1945

Miltonia Blanket - 1945January 8: A boy was born to Mr. & Mrs. William Hanson of Wakefield. [Peggy Fletcher]

There is nothing about the mill in Grandpa’s 1946, 1947, 1948, and 1949 diaries.

[The diarist’s second wife, Ella (Buck) Wentworth, died June 21, 1947, aged seventy-six years, ten months, and two days].

Miltonia Blanket - 19491950

[The Miltonia Mill was placed in receivership, i.e., became bankrupt, in early 1950].

March 24: Went to Rochester with Agnes in A.M. Had to go to the bank. I am letting her have some money to help save the mill and get it out of Receivership. She hopes to get it incorporated and going again.

1951

June 18: Mr. John Bentley called to see me this evening. He is interested in planning some way to get the mill going.

[John W. Bentley (1873-1962) lived on both Pelham Avenue in Methuen, MA, and Townhouse Road in Milton, NH. He was president and treasurer of Bentley Hair Co., manufacturers of hair brushes, but he had formerly manufactured “shoddy.” Shoddy is reclaimed wool from unfelted materials of a better quality and longer staple].

October 3: Agnes was over to see me about the mill – nothing doing there yet, and not any very good prospect.

1952

July 17: Went over to talk with Agnes a little while in P.M. about the mill. She has another prospect of selling. Don’t know as it will amount to anything.

1953

April 14: Fred Simes funeral was this P.M. at the house. I wanted to go but the weather was bad [snow] and I didn’t feel hardly able to go over.

[Fred H. Simes died of cardiac failure in Milton, April 11, 1953, aged eighty-five years. He was a widowed [retired] mill superintendent. Robert E. Lord, M.D., signed the death certificate].

Grandpa was 83 and had multiple health issues at this time; some days were good, but others were not.

1954

[Granite State Briefs. Tanning Firm Buys Mill. MILTON MILLS (AP) – The Greene Tanning Corp., newly organized company for tanning sheep hides, has purchased a vacant mill here and will begin operations within 30 days, it was announced today. According to attorney Wesley Powell of Hampton Falls, the Miltonia Mills plant has been obtained by a firm headed by James C. Greene of Peabody, Mass. The mill has been vacant since Miltonia went out of business several years ago. The purchase price from the mill corporation was not disclosed. The new operation is expected to employ “upwards” of 25, the lawyer said (Portsmouth Herald, May 27, 1954)].

[AUCTION! MACHINERY and EQUIPMENT of the BANKRUPT MILTONIA MILLS, MILTON MILLS, NEW HAMPSHIRE. Wednesday, June 16, 1954 at 11:00 A.M. D&F 48 in. DREADNAUGHT MIXING PICKER – Sargent Cone duster – Dodge rag picker – 5 sets D&F and CLEVELAND CARDS, 48×60 and 48×48 in. – 60×48 in. card grinders – 20 C&K 92 and 100 in. AUTOMATIC 4×1 BOX LOOMS – D&F MULES – Rodney Hunt fulling mills and cloth washers – D&F 100 in. x 14 ROLL S.A. NAPPER – GESSNER 84 and 90 IN. x 18 ROLL D.A. NAPPERS – PROCTOR & SCHWARTZ 90 IN. x 2 SECTION RAW STOCK DRYER – Roy 115 in. napper grinder – Hercules and other extractors – Walsh, Houston, Merrow and Metropolitan sewing machines – yarn tester – D&F 92 and 100 IN. BRASS PLATE DRESSING WHEELS – D&F beamer – D&F jack spoolers – jack winder – flocking system – 16 metal clad fiber box trucks 48x30x27 in.; card and jack spools; bobbins; picker sticks; canvas baskets, sewing thread; waste; blanket boxes; trucks; scales; blowers; motors; belting; stencil cutter; pipe fittings; fluorescent lights; Whitcomb iron planer; desks; chairs; letter and card files, etc. Sale to take place upon the premises, and will be sold piece by piece. Inspection day before and morning of sale. Terms cash. Catalog in detail upon application to Henry S. Anthony & Co., AUCTIONEERS, Since 1923, 210 CENTRAL ST., LOWELL, MASS. PHONE 2-4995 SuT je13 (Boston Globe, June 13, 1954)].

June 29: Fire in the mill this a.m. in the old Dye House part. Don’t know how much damage was done.

July 26: Mill whistle blew to-day – the first time for 2 or 3 years.

October 29: The Greene Tanning Co. held “Open House” this P.M. & evening. So rainy I didn’t go over. There were quite a lot of people there.

1955

Harry E. Wentworth passed away at his home with his son and daughter-in-law by his side on December 10, 1955. He was 86 years old.

[Deaths and Funerals. Harry E. Wentworth. ACTON, Maine – Harry E. Wentworth, 86, brother of Mrs. Clara Wilkins of York and a retired manager and head bookkeeper of the former Miltonia Mill, Milton Mills, N.H., died Saturday at his home. For the past 40 years Mr. Wentworth, a native of Milton Mills, has served as Sunday School superintendent of the Milton Mills-Acton Baptist Church of which was deacon and treasurer. He has served as president of the Milton Mills Cemetery Assn. Besides his sister, survivors include a son and another sister (Portsmouth Herald, December 12, 1955)].

Epilogue

Halton R. Hayes was nominated as Milton Mills postmaster in August 1956 (U.S. Senate, 1960).

Former superintendent Frank C. Gard died in Waterville, ME, February 3, 1963.

Agnes M. (Townsend) Hayes died in St. Petersburg, FL, in 1969.

Former superintendent William E. Herrick died in Barnstable, MA, April 25, 1970.

THE GREENE TANNING CORP AT PUBLIC AUCTION. TUESDAY, MAY 23, 1978, AT 10 A.M. MILTON MILLS, NH, ALL EQUIPMENT & REAL ESTATE. We have been commissioned to sell this Tannery piece by piece or as an entirety, whichever way it brings the most. This is a positive sale with NO HOLD BACKS, EVERYTHING SELLS! On this above date and time. TANNING MACHINERY & EQUIPMENT, WET CELLAR – DRY MILL ROOM – BUFFING ROOM, TACKING ROOM – SPRAYING ROOM – SHIPPING ROOM, TOGGLING ROOM – BOILER ROOM, MACHINE SHOP, TRUCKS – FORK LIFT & BOILER, OFFICE EQUIPMENT, INVENTORY OF SKINS. Anyone wishing a complete list of this sale please call Auctioneers office. TERMS ON EQUIPMENT: Cash day of sale. REAL ESTATE. Consists of a large mill with office building and approx. 8 Acres of land, more or less, with a large warehouse and boiler room. It has a Chappell purifying system self-contained waste water system. INSPECTION: On Real Estate by appointment only by calling auctioneers office. TERMS: On Real Estate $5,000 down time of sale by cash or certified check, balance within 20 days on closing. All other conditions to be announced at time of sale. POSITIVE SALE – Sale by order of Small Business Administration. Sale under the management of Barber Sales, Inc., Lebanon, N.H. Tel: 603-448-3366 or Westbrook, ME 207-8S4-8344. AUCTIONEERS: J. W. BARBER, JR. & LARRY GRAY (Boston Globe, May 14, 1978).

Ingeborg V. (Swenson) Townsend died in 1981. Halton R. Hayes died in Pinellas, FL, in October 7, 1981, aged eighty-seven years.

NEW HAMPSHIRE R.E. – MILTONIA MILL. Historic Mill Complex in Milton Mills offering approx. 54,000 s.f. of building area in 7 structures. Long river frontage, ideally situated for light industrial, residential or commercial development. Additional land available. $275,000. ERA MAINS & ROBINSON 603-539-6412, 522-3364 (Boston Globe, February 9, 1986).


Ms. Bristol contributed some supplementary research support.


See also H.E. Wentworth’s Diary Entries, Miltonia Mills – 1910-27 and H.E. Wentworth’s Diary Entries, Miltonia Mills – 1928-34


References:

Find a Grave. (2020, April 5). John W. Bentley. Retrieved from www.findagrave.com/memorial/208749817/john-w.-bentley

Find a Grave. (2020, May 4). Fanny Ellen Hansen. Retrieved from www.findagrave.com/memorial/209771634/fanny-ellen-hansen

Find a Grave. (2013, August 4). Halton R. Hayes. Retrieved from www.findagrave.com/memorial/114892787/halton-r-hayes

Find a Grave. (2013, August 9). Hattie E. Hayes. Retrieved from www.findagrave.com/memorial/115185701/hattie-e-hayes

Find a Grave. (2016, July 3). William E. Herrick. Retrieved from www.findagrave.com/memorial/166367295/william-edward-herrick

Find a Grave. (2013, August 2). Eugene E. Runnells. Retrieved from www.findagrave.com/memorial/114807003/eugene-e-runnels

Find a Grave. (2013, August 17). Frederick H. Simes. Retrieved from www.findagrave.com/memorial/115612396/frederick-h.-simes

Find a Grave. (2013, August 17). Harold Edward Simes. Retrieved from www.findagrave.com/memorial/115612469/harold-edward-simes

Find a Grave. (2019, August 15). George A. Stevens. Retrieved from www.findagrave.com/memorial/202167636/george-a-stevens

Find a Grave. (2015, November 12). Ruth Marion Ramsey Tanner. Retrieved from www.findagrave.com/memorial/154917895/ruth-marion-tanner

Find a Grave. (2013, August 4). Ingeborg V. Swenson Townsend. Retrieved from www.findagrave.com/memorial/114893253/ingeborg-v-townsend

Find a Grave. (2013, August 5). Harry E. Wentworth. Retrieved from www.findagrave.com/memorial/114938247/harry-e-wentworth

Find a Grave. (2013, August 12). Louis A. Young. Retrieved from www.findagrave.com/memorial/115328549/louis-a-young

U.S. Senate. (1960). Journal of the Executive Proceedings of the Senate of the United States of America. Retrieved from books.google.com/books?id=-m24R7ZvJFkC&pg=PA702

Wikipedia. (2021, June 6). Nor’easter. Retrieved from en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nor%27easter

Celestial Seasonings – July 2021

By Heather Durham | June 30, 2021

Hi everyone! Welcome to this month’s edition of Celestial Seasonings! In keeping with my musings in the June addition, I have added a graphic and the only video I could find pertaining to the meteor showers we are expecting this month.  More time and research is needed. In the meantime, check out what’s available for your viewing pleasure this July.


July 1. The Strawberry Moon will be in its last quarter.

July 5. Mercury will be located at it’s farthest place from the Sun. Although we are in midsummer, the Earth will be located at it’s farthest point from the Sun.

July 9. Half of Mercury will be visible this morning.

July 12. The Moon and Venus will ascend to the right together.

July 13. Mercury will ascend to it’s highest location in the sky.

July 17. The first quarter of the Moon will appear.

July 23. The full Buck Moon will appear this evening. Bucks’ antlers grow this time of year.

July 24. The Moon and Saturn will ascend to the right and will be very close to one another.

July 25. The Moon and Jupiter will ascend to the right direction and will be close to each other.

July 28. The Piscis Austrinid meteor shower will peak today.

July 30. The Southern Delta-Aquariid meteor shower will peak today.  These showers are very faint. The Alpha-Capricornid meteor shower will also peak today during which time you may see up to five meteors. Most meteors are smaller than a grain of sand but usually disintegrate before reaching Earth.

Meteor Over LindisfarneJuly 31. The last quarter of the Moon is this evening.


References:

Anonymous, A.A. (2020, May 10). Meteor Shower. Retrieved from en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meteor_shower

Ford, D.F.(2021, June 28). July 2021. Retrieved from in-the-sky.org/newscal.php

Now Next. (2021, May 27). July 2021 Astronomical Events. Retrieved from youtu.be/LmP66__L36Y

Wikipedia. (2021, January 15). Alpha-Capricornids. Retrieved from en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alpha_Capricornids

The Impossible Nightmare

By Ian Aikens | June 4, 2021

Re-education camps for white executives of Sandia National Laboratories in Livermore, California? An infographic at the African-American History Museum in Washington D.C. that lists “self-reliance, objective and linear thinking, hard work, the nuclear family, planning for the future, written tradition, and politeness” as aspects of “White Culture”? A white high school student at a Las Vegas charter school forced to take a mandatory civics class for graduation that required students to reveal their race, gender, sexual orientation, and disabilities and then determine if privilege or oppression is attached to any of these identities?

What madness is going on here? It’s called Critical Race Theory (CRT), and it’s been around for decades festering in the academic world, but it is now in full bloom in the corporate world and educational system. Under the guise of equity and diversity, CRT’s alleged goal is to make this a more just society. In reality, it will only make things worse for minority members of society.

CRT’s basic premise is that American society is inherently and hopelessly racist and can only be fixed with a total restructuring. The most basic tenet of CRT is the complete absence of individualism. All of us are not individuals but rather part of socially constructed groups. Furthermore, there are two basic groups—oppressors (whites) and the oppressed (non-whites). To say that CRT proponents are obsessed with race is the understatement of our time.

So, what has all this to do with the Live Free or Die state? HB544, a bill introduced this year and now included in the budget that was sent to the governor, has been one of the most explosive and bitterly contested bills in the state house this session. The bill is entitled “Propagation of Divisive Concepts Prohibited,” and the basic goal of the bill is to outlaw advocating CRT with tax dollars. This would mainly apply to schools and government contractors.

One of the objections to HB544 has been that it is akin to censorship since it ties the hands of teachers from teaching about CRT and the country’s racial problems. That’s nonsense. According to Chapter 10-C:3 Section II,

Nothing in this chapter shall be construed to prohibit discussing, as part of a larger course of academic instruction, the divisive concepts listed in RSA 10-C:1, II in an objective manner and without endorsement.

Discussing OK—advocating not OK. It should be obvious that teachers should not be bringing their politics into the classroom anyway.

“Divisive concepts” are defined in the bill as:

  1. One race or sex is inherently superior to another race or sex.
  2. The state of New Hampshire or the United States is fundamentally racist or sexist.
  3. An individual, by virtue of his or her race or sex, is fundamentally racist, sexist, or oppressive, whether consciously or unconsciously.
  4. An individual should be discriminated against or receive adverse treatment solely or partly because of his or her race or sex.
  5. Members of one race or sex cannot and should not attempt to treat others without respect to race or sex.
  6. An individual’s moral character is necessarily determined by his or her race or sex.
  7. Meritocracy or traits such as a hard work ethic are racist or sexist, or were created by a particular race to oppress another race.

While some people (who may have forgotten that a black man was elected President of the United States not once but twice) might feel the second statement above is true and should not be considered a “divisive concept,” surely all the other statements should be abhorrent to all well-meaning people of different backgrounds and affiliations. You wouldn’t think there would be a major brouhaha about outlawing the advocacy of such ideas, let alone with tax dollars.

You better think again. The pro-CRT troops are very vocal, and they showed up (virtually) at the committee hearings earlier this year in masse. The very first thing that became obvious at the hearings is that the CRT supporters all tend to sound alike after a while, which isn’t surprising since groupthink is an essential characteristic of CRT. Beware when you hear the term “lived experience”! They all use it since that’s part of the script of the oppressed. Storytelling or “counter-storytelling,” rather than science and factual information, is the preferred method for advancing knowledge, according to the gospel of CRT.

The complete lack of civility was very much on display by those opposing the bill. Rather than bringing up legitimate points of discussion supporting their objections to the bill—if they had any—the CRT mob immediately descended into personal attacks against anyone who supported the bill. Allegations of “white supremacist” and “racist” were uttered often. It is rumored that the committee chair (normally a mellow person) at one of the public hearings “lost her cool” due to the rudeness from those who profess “social justice” but couldn’t honor The Golden Rule personally themselves.

This complete lack of tolerance toward any other point of view other than their own is a familiar characteristic of CRT. According to CRT, white people don’t even have a say in the matter of racism in American society since as oppressors it is not their “lived experience.” And even if white people don’t oppress minorities consciously, they do it unconsciously through implicit bias. To top this twisted thinking off, when white people finally become anti-racist, even then they don’t get high marks because of “interest convergence.” This means that they only allowed the advancement of the oppressed to make themselves feel good, protect themselves from criticism, and avoid confronting their own inherent racism. Truly a “Dammed if you do, damned if you don’t” situation—and by design too.

The CRT crowd takes this nonsense a step further. Even a black person isn’t safe from the wrath of the CRT believers if he doesn’t subscribe to the CRT religion. When musician Kanye West donned a MAGA hat, critical race theorist Nehisi Coates suggested that West is “not really black.” The same could be said of senior associate justice of the Supreme Court Clarence Thomas due to his conservative views. On the other hand, President Biden (who rescinded President Trump’s executive order banning CRT from federal training programs) could be considered black. The difference here is “racially black” versus “politically black.” CRT theorists are really only interested in the “politically black.” If you don’t toe the CRT line, don’t bother to apply because you’re “not really black.”

CRT sees racism in every single transaction in all aspects of life. That’s the “critical” part of the movement that all devoted CRT activists are expected to perform 24/7. They see The White Supremacist Boogeyman everywhere. Even ordinary day-to-day activities become suspect.

Did you read about the cafeteria worker and campus staff at Smith College in Northampton, Massachusetts who were accused of being racist when they questioned a black student for eating her lunch in a building that was closed for the summer? A simple misunderstanding became a cause célèbre for the CRT crowd that went viral. A public apology by the college, threats made, lives changed forever—all despite an independent investigation that found no evidence of racial discrimination. Is it any surprise that Ibram X. Kendi, another esteemed high priest of the movement, who directs the Center for Antiracist Research at Boston University, has proposed the creation of a federal Department of Antiracism?

Another perverse trait of CRT is its rejection of science as the primary method of the gaining and transmission of knowledge. Because modern science was predominately produced by white males in Western civilization, that immediately makes it suspect to CRT scholars. Per Robin DiAngelo (who by the way was paid $12,000 plus travel expenses for a 2-hour racial justice speech at the University of Kentucky) and Ozlem Sensoy, “…a key element of social injustice involves the claim (my emphasis) that particular knowledge is objective, neutral, and universal. An approach based on critical theory calls into question the idea that objectivity is desirable or even possible.”

If this isn’t an anti-science piece of muddled thinking, I don’t know what is. Obviously, universality and objectivity are the basics of all science, with the goal of discovering truth, wherever it might be. While “following the science” is easier said than done, at least most people would agree that it serves the human race well. But CRT thinkers discourage even following the science because, by their thinking, white people’s interests are primarily served by science in order to oppress black people.

In place of science and objectivity, CRT encourages storytelling for black people as a better way to gain knowledge. Science for white people and storytelling for black people. It’s not hard to see why CRT advocates are primarily opposed to testing, grades, and mathematics in the schools. Can you imagine a doctor performing surgery on you who gained his operating skills from “storytelling” rather than what he learned in his biology classes? Or, back to the Sandia scientists who work on nuclear weapons, would you prefer they learned their trade through “counter-stories” or technical science books and lab experiments? By the CRT way of thinking, if you feel that 2 + 2 = 5, then indeed why can’t that be your reality?

In the end, CRT is a hopeless effort that can never be satisfied. Kate Slate, another revered local CRT expert at the University of New Hampshire, proclaimed this zinger of wisdom: “I am white. White people can never be anything but oppressors…I will work on my anti-racism my whole life but will continually fail. I will never get to a space where I am good enough.” As for encouraging black people to turn away from science, hard work, long-term goals, and their own individuality, and choose victimhood, how is this ever going to lift them out of poverty?

The hard, cold truth is CRT “scholars” have designed a black hole of destructive, circular thinking that thrives on constant strife that can never eliminate racism but only feed into it. If ivory-tower intellectuals want to immerse themselves in this warped view of life, they should be free to do so—but not on the taxpayers’ dime.


References:

Administrator, A Disillusioned. (2021, April 2). I Work in the Public School System. Critical Race Theory Is Everywhere. Retrieved from I Work in the Public School System. Critical Race Theory Is Everywhere. – American Thinker

Bernstein, Brittany. (2021, May 8). Disney Employee Training Claims U.S. Was Founded on ‘Systemic Racism,’ Includes ‘White Privilege Checklist’. Retrieved from Disney Employee Training Claims U.S. Was Founded on ‘Systemic Racism,’ Includes ‘White Privilege Checklist’ (yahoo.com)

Chait, Jonathan. (2020, July 16). Is the Anti-Racism Training Industry Just Peddling White Supremacy? Retrieved from Is Anti-Racism Training Just Peddling White Supremacy? (nymag.com)

Dima, Jake and Hasson, Peter. (2019, July 28). $12K A Day: How White Liberals Profit From Pushing ‘White Privilege’. Retrieved from $12K A Day: How White Liberals Profit From Pushing ‘White Privilege’ | The Daily Caller

Eden, Max. (2020, September 18). Critical Race Theory in American Classrooms. Retrieved from Critical Race Theory in American Classrooms | City Journal (city-journal.org)

Griffith, Keith and Alexander, Harriet. (2021, April 16). Smith College cafeteria worker who was smeared with false racism claim says her life has ‘never been the same’ as she files internal complaint. Retrieved from Smith College cafeteria worker who was smeared with false racism claim speaks out | Daily Mail Online

Jacobson, William A. (2021, May 11). As “Critical Race Theory” Becomes Toxic Term, New Codenames and Keywords Emerge. Retrieved from As “Critical Race Theory” Becomes Toxic Term, New Codenames and Keywords Emerge (legalinsurrection.com)

Karimi, Faith. (2021, May 10). What critical race theory is—and isn’t. Retrieved from What critical race theory is — and isn’t – CNN

Lindsay, James. (2020, June 12). Eight Big Reasons Critical Race Theory Is Terrible for Dealing with Racism. Retrieved from Eight Big Reasons Critical Race Theory Is Terrible for Dealing with Racism – New Discourses

Rufo, Christopher F. (2020, August 12). Nuclear Consequences. Retrieved from Nuclear Consequences (christopherrufo.com)

Rufo, Christopher F. (2021, February 11). In a Philadelphia elementary school, teachers are putting a premium on radicalism, not reading. Retrieved from Philadelphia 5th Graders Forced to Celebrate “Black Communism” (city-journal.org)

Safi, Marlo. (2020, December 4). ‘You Are Upholding Racist Ideas’: Teachers Reportedly Required To Attend ‘White Privilege’ Training At Public School. Retrieved from ‘You Are Upholding Racist Ideas’: Teachers Reportedly Required To Attend ‘White Privilege’ Training At Public School | The Daily Caller

Wikipedia. Critical race theory. Retrieved from Critical race theory – Wikipedia

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