By Muriel Bristol (Transcriber) | June 16, 2019
In this year, the busy first of Milton’s second century, we encounter another mill fire, a Milton farm for sale, a machinist wanted, Mr. Dearborn’s runaway horse, a photographer wanted, the death of the Hon. Charles H. Looney, a sales opportunity, an ice house fire, Mrs. Pinfold’s poetry, the Exeter death of a Milton native, the unsinkable Mrs. Dobbyn, the Milton centennial (plus one) celebration, a Milton hotel for sale, and the Socialist gubernatorial candidate who was educated in Milton Mills.
This was the year in which Milton’s Centennial was celebrated, on Saturday, August 30, 1902. By the same logic as that used for the transition from the nineteenth century (1801-1900) to the twentieth (1901-2000), this would have been actually in the first year of Milton’s second century (1902-2001), rather than its centennial year (which was the year before: 1802-1901)).
Schoolboy T.C. Wentworth of Milton Mills posed his geometry problem in March.
The Milton Leather-Board Company mill had been in operation from at least 1885. The company was based in Boston, MA. Frank E. Norton was its superintendent, and had been since 1893.
In the Twelfth (1900) Federal Census, thirty-one Milton residents identified themselves as leatherboard mill employees: Durel Berry, a worker; George W. Berryman, a hand; Onesime Blouin, an operative; Peter Boucher, a beater; Edwin A. Burke, a wetter; Herbert Colson; Ernest F. Dickson, an operative; William Dickson, an operative; William A. Dickson, an operative; Henry Dugnette, a beater; Herbert A. Duntley, a dryer; Herman Dyer, an operator; George S. Earl, a stripper; Arthur G. Ellis, a hand; Clymer G. Goodwin, a worker; Charles Ham; Frank Kenney, a molder; Algernon Kendall, a molder; Jason Kendall; Herbert Kenney, a hand; Lizzie Kingston, an operative; William McAllister, a hand; L. Marshall, a beater; Frank E. Norton, superintendent; Thomas Plummer, a hand; Lillian Pugsley, a skiver; George W. Rand, Jerome Reagan, an operative, John Sullivan, a dryer; John Thyng, an operative; Pearl Thyng, an operative. Hiram S. Cate was a retired leatherboard hand.
ONE MAN BADLY BURNED. Milton, N.H., Leather Board Mills Destroyed by Fire. Loss Between $55.000 and $60,000. MILTON. N.H., Jan. 8. – The Milton leather board mills here, were burned early today, causing a loss between $55,000 and $60,000. One man was badly burned. The fire started from an overheated pulley. As the result 75 men are thrown out of employment. The mill and yards cover over two acres. A large quantity of lumber was piled upon the premises and was destroyed. The steam plant of the mill had recently been fitted up with an additional new engine, and steam apparatus at a cost of $30,000. The factory has been running night and day for some time past (Boston Globe, January 8, 1902).
Construction of a new mill on the same site began very soon after the fire.
Here we find a Milton farm for sale by its “city owner,” who had evidently put a lot of money into it.
City Owner Expended $40,000 – Is unencumbered, offered for $12,000, and will please you if you are looking for a first class farm beautifully situated 1 1-2 miles from station in Milton, N.H., 87 miles from Boston; 250 acres cuts 100 tons hay; keeps 22 cows and 6 horses and sell hay; milk sold at wholesale; 100 apple trees; other fruit; trout brook; 2-story house, 13 high rooms and L; open fireplaces; piazzas; nice lawn and shade trees; fine new barn, 100×40 clapboarded and painted; cellar; old barn, 80×30, cellar, carriage house 40×40, with storeroom above; 3 poultry houses with yards, icehouse, etc., all in good repair. Apply to CHAPIN’S FARM AGENCY, 1 Herald Bldg., Boston (New England Farmer, January 11, 1902).
But note how that selling city owner offers the house for what the market will bear and has not been sidetracked into any “sunk cost fallacies.”
The Milton company desiring a first-class machinist was not specified.
MALE HELP WANTED. WANTED – Machinist of first-class ability, to go to Milton, N.H.; steady situation will be given to a reliable man capable of taking charge; positively no drunkards. D 11, Globe office (Boston Globe, January 24, 1902).
Note that the market solution to drunkenness did not require prohibition: just do not hire drunkards. They are not reliable.
RECORD RUNAWAY. Gelding, Owned by Dover, N.H., Man, Unhurt After Run of 22 or 25 Miles. DOVER, N.H., March 2. The runaway record for this section was probably beaten last evening by the phenomenal run of Thomas H. Dearborn’s fast pacing gelding, which, while hitched to a light buggy, started from Mr. Dearborn’s residence on Silver st. and was not stopped or captured until it reached a point four miles above Milton. It was a run of from 22 to 25 miles. The frightened gelding tore down through Central av. and the business section at a clip that startled the hundreds of people on the street at the time. No one dared to stop it. It passed through Central sq., crossed the bridge and turned into 2d st., passing several teams without a mishap. From 2d st. it made its way to 6th st. and struck the Rochester road. The horse left the wrecked buggy between three and four miles beyond East Rochester. It was caught by a Milton resident near Milton Mills. Mr. Dearborn learned of the capture this morning and recovered the animal, which was found to be unhurt (Boston Globe, March 3, 1902).
Thomas H. Dearborn resided at 120 Silver Street in Dover. He was a partner, with Frank N. French, in Thomas H. Dearborn & Company, which was a dry goods and kitchenware store at 452-54 Central Avenue in Dover.
He received an appointment as Dover’s postmaster, May 8, 1928, a position he held until his death in Dover, December 30, 1932.
MALE HELP WANTED. – MAN who understands photograph and ferrotype business. Address Lock Box 160, Milton Mills, N.H. (Boston Globe, March 23, 1902).
John E. Townsend was a son of mill owner Henry H. Townsend. He was superintendent of his father’s mill. Dr. Jeremiah S. Elkins was a Farmington physician. Neither man seems to have been primarily a photographer, which perhaps explains why one, or the other, or even someone else altogether, might advertise for a “man who understands the photograph and ferrotype business.” (A ferrotype is a type of tintype photograph).
Here we bid farewell to the Hon. Charles H. Looney, who was Milton’s former Postmaster, former town official, former NH State Representative, former NH State Senator, and, at the time of his death, Deputy Collector of Customs in Portsmouth, NH.
HON. CHARLES H. LOONEY. Deputy Collector of This Port Dies at His Home in Milton. Word was received here at 10:30 o’clock this Wednesday morning of the death at his home in Milton early in the morning hours of Hon. Charles H. Looney, deputy collector of customs of this port. Deceased suffered an apoplectic stroke Tuesday afternoon and from the first there was no hope for the sufferer. He lingered until 12:30 this Wednesday morning when he breathed his last. Hon. Charles H. Looney was horn Milton in 1849. He was educated in the public schools of his own town and at Berwick academy. After graduation he entered into business and was successful for a number of years. He drifted into politics and after holding all town offices of trust was made postmaster. In the years 1885-86 he represented his town in the legislature and the two following years he put in as state senator. He was appointed inspector of customs in 1890 and in 1892 was promoted to Deputy Collector which office he held until November, 1894. Again in 1898 he was appointed Collector and held the same at the time of his death. Deceased leaves a wife and four grown-up sons on whom the sudden blow falls with almost crushing force. He was a man of essentially home qualities and was bound up in the four sons in whom he took great pride. He was a member of the Congregational church and also a Free Mason. The funeral will be held Saturday afternoon at two o’clock in Milton and the collector’s office in this city will undoubtedly be closed that afternoon in order that the collector and inspectors may attend the obsequies (Portsmouth Herald, April 23, 1902).
Customs was a much more important Federal revenue stream prior to passage of the Income Tax in 1911. His son, Walter E. Looney, succeeded him as Deputy Collector of Customs. Another son, Robert M. Looney, was Principal of the Milton Grammar School.
The M.F. Perfume company sought sales agents for its perfumes and flavorings. The agents would receive a 50% cut.
AGENTS, PARTNERS, ETC. AGENTS wanted for perfumes and flavorings, 50 percent. M.F. Perfume Co., Box 160, Milton. N.H. (Boston Globe, May 4, 1902).
The “M.F.” of “M.F. Perfume Company” stood for Martha Francis. Martha Francis was a St. Louis, MO, individual who sold a recipe for making perfumes and a method for selling the product.
A Chance to Make Money. I have been selling Perfumes for the past 6 months. I make them myself at home and sell to friends and neighbors. Have made $710. Everyone buys a bottle. For 50¢ worth of material I make Perfume that cost $2.00 in drug stores. I first made it for my own use only, but the curiosity of friends as to where I procured such exquisite odors prompted me to sell it. I clear from $25.00 to $35.00 per week. I do not canvas, people come and send to me for the perfumes. Any intelligent person can do as well as I do. For 42¢ in stamps I send you the formula for making all kinds of perfumes and a sample bottle prepaid. I also help you get started in the business. MARTHA FRANCIS, 3453 Laclede Avenue, St. Louis, Mo. (Christian Nation, 1900).
Someone at P.O. Box 160 in Milton decided evidently to give it a try. After a time, Martha Francis began selling completed products for distribution, rather than ingredients for the clients to complete themselves. Her advertisements ran through in papers throughout the country through at least 1914.
Another serious fire came in May, this time through a lightning strike on an ice house. Milton’s Ice Industry experienced ice house fires in at least the years 1902, 1909, 1927, 1931, and 1944.
LOSS $50,000. Lightning Strikes Houses of Boston Ice Company at Milton, N.H. – 12 Burned. DORCHESTER. N.H., May 25. – Lightning struck the ice houses of the Boston Ice company at Milton last night, and 12, six of which were filled with ice. were burned. The loss is placed at $50,000 fully insured (Boston Globe, May 26, 1902).
The Boston Ice company’s ice houses were located at modern Utah Way (Foster’s Daily Democrat, 2014)
Annie Elisabeth Lewis was born in Windsor, England, in December 1868, daughter of John and Elizabeth (Jones) Pinfold. She emigrated to the United States with her parents in 1875.
John Lewis, a book-keeper, aged thirty-seven years (b. England), headed a Milton (“Milton Mills Village”) household at the time of the Tenth (1880) Federal Census. His household included his wife, Elisabeth Lewis, keeping house, aged thirty-seven years (b. England), and his children, John W. Lewis, works in store, aged thirteen years (b. England), Annie E. Lewis, at home, aged eleven years (b. England), Edwin J. Lewis, at home, aged nine years (b. England), Amy J. Lewis, at home, aged seven years (b. England), Alice S. Lewis, at home, aged five years (b. England), and Alfred W. Lewis, at home, aged one year (b. ME). Their household appeared in the enumeration between the household of Luther B. Roberts, a storekeeper, aged thirty-four years (b. ME), and that of Charles J. Berry, a clerk in a store, aged forty-three years (b. NH).
She married, circa 1885-86, William Pinfold. He was born in Reading, Berkshire, England, April 27, 1864, son of Joseph and Lucy E. (Lewis) Pinfold. He emigrated to the United States in 1881.
William Pinfold, a mill hand, aged thirty-five years (b. England), headed an Acton, ME, household at the time of the Twelfth (1900) Federal Census. His household included his wife (of fourteen years), Annie Pinfold, aged thirty-one years (b. England), and his children, Lucy E. Pinfold, aged thirteen years (b. England), Ellen L. Pinfold, aged eleven years (b. ME), Amey E. Pinfold, aged eight years (b. ME), Edwin J. Pinfold, aged seven years (b. ME), and William J. Pinfold, aged six years (b. ME). Annie was the mother of ten children, of whom five were still living.
Annie L. Pinfold was born in Windsor, England in 1870 [SIC]. She later lived in a small town near the border of Maine and New Hampshire. She started writing short stories for Sunday school publications but then started writing hymns (Shapiro, 1916).
William Pinfold appeared in the Milton section of the Dover directory of 1902 as an employee of the W. [Waumbeck] mill, resident at 36 Lebanon road, Acton s., Milton Mills.
Annie E. (Lewis) Pinfold of Milton Mills sent the following poems to the Boston Globe in 1902. (She was then aged thirty-three years). (See References for some other works, including hymn lyrics, short stories, and a novella).
A DIFFERENCE OF OPINION.
Said the big pussy cat to the little pussy cat,
“Pray why are you never still?
With your gambols and raps you disturb my naps.
Till I fear you will make me ill.”
Said the little pussy cat to the big pussy cat,
“Pray, why do you never play?
If you knew the delight of a romp or a fight,
You would never sleep all the day.”
Said the big pussy cat to the little pussy cat,
“I once was a kitten like you;
But to squander my days in such foolish ways
Was a thing I never did do.”
Said the little pussy cat to the big pussy cat,
“Then you were a fine young dunce;
I say frolic and play thro’ the livelong day,
For we can’t be kittens but once.”
Annie Lewis Pinfold, Milton Mills, N.H. (Boston Globe, July 10, 1902).
ME AN’ THE PUPPIES AN’ PETE
No; course we’re not lonesome out here by ourselfs,
When the rest of the children’s at school,
An’ mama is busy an’ says, “Run an’ play
Outdoors where it’s shady and cool;”
There’s a swing an’ a hammock an’ nice cubby-house –
It’s the boo-ful-est yard on our street.
An’ we have jest the best times together all day,
Me an’ the puppies an’ Pete.
It’s fine hide-an’-seek in the tall grass an’ weeds
They bark ‘stead of hollerin’
“Tag!” My! You’d laugh if you saw how they pull when they play
“Tug-o’-war” with an old piece of rag.
Sometimes they steal Pete an’ run off to the barn
Guess they ‘magine he’s something to eat
Then I chase ’em, bad dogs, an’ we have a big fight,
Me an’ the puppies an’ Pete.
When we’re tired and hungry an’ all out of breath,
“Please, a cookie!” we beg at the door.
My mama, she knows that they all ‘spect a bite,
Most always brings out three or four.
Then we sit on the steps while we eat ’em an’ rest
An’ get ready to run out an’ meet
The childrens an’ papa when dinner time comes,
Me an’ the puppies an’ Pete.
Annie Lewis Pinfold (Boston Globe, June 22, 1902).
William Pinfold died in Acton, ME, October 28, 1920. Annie E. (Lewis) Pinfold died in Gonic, Rochester, NH, October 24, 1921.
Here we learn of the death of another Milton native, this time in Exeter. Milton elected him Town Moderator, circa 1844, and sent him to Concord as state representative for the 1853-54 biennium.
He too may have been a Milton district school teacher for a time, perhaps in the 1840s, as he began his career as a teacher while still resident in Milton, and taught school in “various towns.” (Milton was not specifically identified as one of them).
HON. JOHN D. LYMAN DEAD. Was Prominent Citizen of Exeter, N.H., and Secretary of State from 1867 to 1870. EXETER, N.H., July 31 – Hon. John D. Lyman, one of Exeter’s most prominent citizens. and well known throughout the state, died this morning at 1 o’clock. Though until quite recently in apparent vigorous health, he had long suffered from an organic trouble, and a fall a few weeks ago, while ascending a stairway at his home, hastened the end.
Hon. John Dearborn Lyman was born in Milton, N.H., July 3, 1823.
He was brought up on a farm and was educated in the public schools and at Gilmanton academy.
He began business life when a young man as a teacher. He taught school in various towns in this state. and for quite a long time was a teacher in Dover.
At an early age Mr. Lyman took an active interest in politics in his native town, so much so that when only 21 years of age he was elected moderator of the annual town meeting.
In 1853 and 1854 he represented his [Milton] town in the legislature.
About 1860 he moved to Farmington, where he was cashier of the bank, and while living there in 1867 he was for three years secretary of the state under Gov. Harriman. He was also state. senator and represented the town of Farmington In the lower house.
He was appointed bank commissioner, and during his service as such was the first man to learn by test the actual amount of savings bank deposits, and was the author of the law requiring savings banks to lay aside a guaranty fund.
While commissioner. he was instrumental in detecting the big defalcation of Ellery Albee, treasurer of the savings bank at Winchester, and had him brought to justice.
In 1868 Mr. Lyman became a resident of this [Exeter] town, which he served faithfully and constantly in various capacities.
He was sent as a representative from this town to the state legislature in 1874-1875 and again in 1890-1891. He was a member of the constitutional convention in 1889 and was returned to the general court in 1893 as a member of the senate.
He married Miss Laura Cass of Alexander, who survives him as does one son, John S. Lyman. who is engaged in business in New York city.
He also left two daughters, Mrs. Minnie Hitchings, wife of Hector M. Hitchings of New York, and Mrs. Annie Warren, wife of Prof. Henry P. Warren, principal of the academy in Albany (Boston Globe, July 31, 1902).
Here we meet an intrepid rusticator, Mrs. Dobbyn, who proved herself to be the right woman in the right place at the right time. Brava!, Mrs. Dobbyn.
SAVED A GIRL FROM DROWNING. Heroic Act of Mrs. Mary E. Dobbyn of Charlestown At Milton N.H. Mrs. Mary E. Dobbyn, wife of Sergt. John F. Dobbyn of [Boston police] division 2, was the means of saving the life of a young woman Wednesday, and is now the heroine of the New Hampshire town of Milton where the incident took place. Mrs. Dobbyn and her husband and three boys have been spending their vacation in Milton, where a number of others from Boston and vicinity have also been stopping. Mrs. Dobbyn in her younger days, when she was Miss Counihan, was accustomed like all young people of Charlestown neck, where she lived, to go the beach near the Alford-st. bridge to bathe. Here she became so accustomed to the water, and to caring for herself and others, in it, and was noted as one of the most expert swimmers among the young girls. To this knowledge and ability, gained in her youth. a Cambridge young woman owes today the fact that she is alive. The young woman with two of her friends went to bathe in the lake at Milton. None of the party knew how to swim. One of them got beyond her depth, and the others, unable to help her themselves, screamed for assistance. Mrs. Dobbyn happened to be passing and heard the screams. She ran to the lake side, and from her knowledge of such scenes grasped the situation at once. The drowning girl was struggling to keep her head above the water. Her strength was exhausted and she was fast losing power even to struggle. There was not an instant to he lost, and without waiting to remove any of her garments, Mrs. Dobbyn plunged in and swam to the girl, who had sunk exhausted under the surface. She had got so far down that her rescuer had to dive to reach her. She grasped the clothing of the insensible girl and brought her body to the surface and struck out for the shore. In the meantime, the cries of the other girls brought a number of people, among them a physician, who set to work to restore life to the apparently dead girl as soon as Mrs. Dobbyn brought her to land. After an hour of hard and constant labor, the girl was resuscitated. Mrs. Dobbyn is a Charlestown girl by birth, and has passed all her life in that section of the [Boston] city. She is a graduate of the Bunker Hill grammar school, and well known and respected by all those among whom she has passed her life. About 15 years ago she married John F. Dobbyn, and now three sturdy boys, Richard aged 14, Edward 12, and John 10 years of age, make up their happy family. Mrs. Dobbyn is a motherly woman, sympathetic and thoughtful of others. No one appeals to her for neighborly assistance without getting it. Her brave act of personal sacrifice to save the life of another is said by a neighbor to be entirely within her character as they have known it for years. Sergt. and Mrs. Dobbyn with their boys return from their vacation tomorrow. (Boston Globe, August 29, 1902).
The Massachusetts Humane Society awarded Mrs. Dobbyn its silver life-saving medal in March of the following year. The rescued girl was identified as Catherine A. Mahoney, of North Cambridge, MA (Boston Globe, March 22, 1903).
John F. Dobbyn, a city police officer, aged forty-nine years (b. MA), headed a Boston, MA, household at the time of the Thirteenth (1910) Federal Census. His household included his wife (of twenty-two years), Mary E. Dobbyn, aged forty-seven years (b. MA), and his children, Richard J. Dobbyn, a clerk in the US Navy Yard [i.e., the Charlestown Navy Yard], aged twenty-two years, Edward N. Dobbyn, aged twenty years, and John F. Dobbyn, aged eighteen years. They resided at 70 Pearl Street, in Boston’s Ward Three.
John F. Dobbyn died in Boston, MA, December 9, 1927. His heroic wife, Mary E. (Counihan) Dobbyn, died in Boston, MA, December 12, 1946.
President Theodore Roosevelt visited Dover, NH, on a “whistle-stop” tour, on Tuesday, August 26, 1902. His train arrived from Haverhill, MA, at noon. He made a fifteen-minute speech in Franklin Square before a throng of 15,000 people. [You may see a photograph on the wall at the Wentworth-Douglas Hospital]. He was on the train again, headed for Old Orchard Beach, ME, at 12:27 PM.
The following Boston Globe editorial asks why Milton did not invite him to its centennial celebration, which took place on Saturday, August 30, 1902.
EDITORIAL POINTS. How did it happen that Milton, N.H., didn’t get the President to help yesterday in the celebration of its first centennial? (Boston Globe, August 31, 1902).
That might have been nice, but it would have involved him hanging around for the intervening three days.
William M. Ostrander, a Philadelphia business broker, with many branch offices, including one in Boston, MA, offered a Milton hotel business for sale.
BUSINESS BARGAINS. If interested in any of the following offers, write at once for full particulars. If you buy a business through me, and at any time within two years you should decide that it is not just what you want, I will resell it for you, charging no commission for my services.
[Excerpt from lengthy list of businesses all over the country:]
Hotel, livery stable and 4 A. land, Milton, N.H., 50 rooms. ½ mi. to R.R. $8,000.
WM. M. OSTRANDER. HOME OFFICE. Suite 1446, North American Building, PHILADELPHIA. BRANCH OFFICES: Commercial Cable Bldg., New York; Chamber of Commerce, Chicago; Pemberton Bldg., Boston: Commonwealth Trust Bldg., St. Louis; St. Paul Bldg., Cincinnati; N.Y. Life Bldg., Kansas City; N.Y. Life Bldg., Minneapolis; Pioneer Bldg., Seattle; Ernest-Cranmer Bldg., Denver; Claus Spreckels Bldg., San Francisco; Stimson Block, Los Angeles; Gould Bldg., Atlanta; Stockton-Budd Bldg., Jacksonville (Minneapolis Star-Tribune, August 31, 1902).
The Boston Globe published a lengthy political article profiling the five candidates running for Massachusetts Governor. They were the Democrat party’s Col. William Gaston, the Republican party’s Lt. Governor John L. Bates, the Prohibition party’s William H. Partridge, the Socialist party’s John C. Chase, and the Socialist-Labor party’s Michael T. Berry.
Here is excerpted only the profile of the Socialist party’s John C. Chase, because his mother for a time kept a boarding house in Milton Mills, from about 1875, and he received “the foundation” of his education in a Milton district school.
John C. Chase. The Socialist candidate is a Haverhill man and a shoemaker by trade. He is only 32 years of age and is one of the leaders of his party in the State, having been elected Mayor of Haverhill in 1898. He was born in Gilmanton, N.H., May 27, 1870. His father [Levi H. Chase] died when he was 5 years of age and his mother [Lynthia E. (Bunker) Chase] removed to Milton Mills. N.H., where she opened up a boarding house. Her son became her helpmate. He managed between working summer in the woolen mills and winter in his mother’s kitchen to attend the old-fashioned “district school” and to lay the foundation of his education. Later the family removed to Barnstead, N.H., and here he learned the trade of shoemaking. Here, too, he completed his education. He was popular with the young men of the town, but his mother had the first call upon him. The lack of time and the conditions under which he obtained his education made John Chase a Socialist. He grew up suffering from the wrong conditions of society. He went to work in the mills earlier than most boys, because his mother was poor. He got into the shoe-making trade just when the shoemakers were fighting to better their conditions. He removed to Haverhill when he was 20 years of age and became prominent in the labor unions. Later still he became interested in the People’s Party in Haverhill and was the local organizer of the Social Democrats. Through his work with these people, he was given a clerkship in the co-operative store which was started by the Social Democrats, and he made a success of this business (Boston Globe, October 10, 1902).
Linthia E. Chase, a pantaloon maker, aged forty-five years (b. NH), headed a Milton (“Milton Mills Village”) household at the time of the Tenth (1880) Federal Census. Her household included her children, David M. Chase, works in woolen mill, aged eighteen years (b. NH), Lewis E. Chase, at house, aged fourteen years (b. NH), John C. Chase, at house, aged nine years (b. NH), and Alice M. Chase, at house, aged five years (b. NH), and her boarders, John Lowry, watchman in mill, aged twenty-two years (b. NH), and Leonard Reed, works in felt mill, aged twenty-four years (b. NH).
John C. Chase might have worked for a time in a Milton woolen mill, probably in the mid 1880s. He and his mother were already in Barnstead, NH, if not in their next stop of Haverhill, MA, before the time of the Milton Mills Shoe Strike of 1889.
Chase’s advocacy of socialism might be excused or explained at this early period, just fifty years after publication of the Communist Manifesto, and before it had been implemented by any national government. Marx formed the First International in London, England, in 1864. It dissolved in Philadelphia, PA, in 1876. The Second International was formed in Paris in 1889. It dissolved in 1916 over issues arising out of WW I. The Bolshevik revolution of 1917 would be Socialism’s first full-scale outing.
Since then, at least 100 million people have been murdered by Socialist governments. Due to this horrifying fact, many assert that anyone advocating this misguided, oppressive, and blood-stained philosophy should be shunned utterly by polite society. Socialists should be rejected to the same extent, if not even more so, as are the equally despicable National Socialists (Nazis), whose body count was “only” half that racked up by international Socialists.
The Austrian economist Ludwig Von Mises explained in his 1919 treatise – Economic Calculation in the Socialist Commonwealth – exactly why Socialism is both illogical and functionally impossible. It lacks a price mechanism by which resources can be allocated to their best use. Mises termed this the “Socialist Calculation problem.”
(The Hayekian Knowledge Problem, which government planners prefer to ignore, is considered by economists to be a derivative of the Socialist Calculation Problem, as Newtonian physics is a local condition of Quantum physics, and Euclidean geometry is a subset of Non-Euclidean geometry).
Republican Lt. Governor John L. Bates won the Massachusetts gubernatorial election of November 1902.
John C. Chase ran subsequently for Governor of New York and Governor of Ohio. He died in New Brighton, PA, January 27, 1937.
Christian Nation Publishing Company. (1900, November 21). A Chance to Make Money. Retrieved from books.google.com/books?id=tGxGAAAAYAAJ&pg=RA20-PA15
Dover Public Library. (n.d). Theodore Roosevelt Visits Dover. Retrieved from www.dover.nh.gov/government/city-operations/library/historical-images/events/theodore-roosevelt-visits-dover.html
Find a Grave. (2013, August 15). Annie E. Pinfold. Retrieved from www.findagrave.com/memorial/115525502/annie-e-pinfold
Fenimore, William P., and Pinfold, Annie Lewis. (1904). Jesus, the Light of the World. Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?id=bQ6APFJPnR0C&pg=PA130
Geibel, Adam, and Pinfold, Annie Lewis. (1904). Never Alone. Retrieved from books.google.com/books?id=bQ6APFJPnR0C&pg=PA8
Hymntime. (1996-19). Annie Lewis Pinfold. Retrieved from www.hymntime.com/tch/bio/p/i/n/pinfold_al.htm
Pinfold, Annie Lewis. (1900, June 30). The Spring in the Cliff. Retrieved from books.google.com/books?id=naYpAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA101
Pinfold, Annie Lewis. (1902, January 18). What Dora Found in the Box. Retrieved from books.google.com/books?id=oMopAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA21
Pinfold, Annie Lewis. (1903). His by Right. Retrieved from books.google.com/books?id=tS0rAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA41
Pinfold, Annie Lewis. (1909). Two Little Welsh Girls. Retrieved from books.google.com/books?id=ECU3AQAAMAAJ
Shapiro, Dianne. (1916). The Singers and Their Songs: Sketches of Living Gospel Hymn Writers, Charles Hutchinson Gabriel (Chicago: The Rodeheaver Company, 1916)
Wikipedia. (2019, January 19). John C. Chase. Retrieved from en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_C._Chase
Wikipedia. (2019, May 7). Sunk Cost. Retrieved from en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sunk_cost
Wikipedia. (2019, May 21). Tintype. Retrieved from en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tintype